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   This Info file contains edition 2.7 of the GNU Emacs Lisp Reference
Manual, corresponding to GNU Emacs version 21.1.

Introduction and conventions used.
Coding Conventions. Coding conventions for Emacs Lisp.
Lisp Data Types
Data types of objects in Emacs Lisp.
Numbers and arithmetic functions.
Strings and Characters
Strings, and functions that work on them.
Lists, cons cells, and related functions.
Sequences Arrays Vectors
Lists, strings and vectors are called sequences.
Certain functions act on any kind of sequence. The description of vectors is here as well.
Hash Tables
Very fast lookup-tables.
Symbols represent names, uniquely.
How Lisp expressions are evaluated.
Control Structures
Conditionals, loops, nonlocal exits.
Using symbols in programs to stand for values.
A function is a Lisp program
that can be invoked from other functions.
Macros are a way to extend the Lisp language.
Writing customization declarations.
Reading files of Lisp code into Lisp.
Byte Compilation
Compilation makes programs run faster.
Advising Functions
Adding to the definition of a function.
Tools and tips for debugging Lisp programs.
Read and Print
Converting Lisp objects to text and back.
Using the minibuffer to read input.
Command Loop
How the editor command loop works,
and how you can call its subroutines.
Defining the bindings from keys to commands.
Defining major and minor modes.
Writing and using documentation strings.
Accessing files.
Backups and Auto-Saving
Controlling how backups and auto-save
files are made.
Creating and using buffer objects.
Manipulating windows and displaying buffers.
Making multiple X windows.
Buffer positions and motion functions.
Markers represent positions and update
automatically when the text is changed.
Examining and changing text in buffers.
Non-ASCII Characters
Non-ASCII text in buffers and strings.
Searching and Matching
Searching buffers for strings or regexps.
Syntax Tables
The syntax table controls word and list parsing.
How Abbrev mode works, and its data structures.
Running and communicating with subprocesses.
Features for controlling the screen display.
Customizing the calendar and diary.
System Interface
Getting the user id, system type, environment
variables, and other such things.

Info for users downgrading to Emacs 20.
GNU Free Documentation License
The license for this documentation
Conditions for copying and changing GNU Emacs.
Advice and coding conventions for Emacs Lisp.
GNU Emacs Internals
Building and dumping Emacs;
internal data structures.
Standard Errors
List of all error symbols.
Standard Buffer-Local Variables
List of variables buffer-local in all buffers.
Standard Keymaps
List of standard keymaps.
Standard Hooks
List of standard hook variables.
Index including concepts, functions, variables,
and other terms.
New Symbols
New functions and variables in Emacs 21.
      --- The Detailed Node Listing ---

Here are other nodes that are inferiors of those already listed,
mentioned here so you can get to them in one step:


Flaws and a request for help.
Lisp History
Emacs Lisp is descended from Maclisp.
How the manual is formatted.
The authors, editors, and sponsors of this manual.

Some Terms
Explanation of terms we use in this manual.
nil and t
How the symbols `nil' and `t' are used.
Evaluation Notation
The format we use for examples of evaluation.
Printing Notation
The format we use for examples that print output.
Error Messages
The format we use for examples of errors.
Buffer Text Notation
The format we use for buffer contents in examples.
Format of Descriptions
Notation for describing functions, variables, etc.
Tips and Conventions

Coding Conventions
Conventions for clean and robust programs.
Compilation Tips
Making compiled code run fast.
Documentation Tips
Writing readable documentation strings.
Comment Tips
Conventions for writing comments.
Library Headers
Standard headers for library packages.
Format of Descriptions

A Sample Function Description
A Sample Variable Description
Lisp Data Types

Printed Representation
How Lisp objects are represented as text.
Comments and their formatting conventions.
Programming Types
Types found in all Lisp systems.
Editing Types
Types specific to Emacs.
Type Predicates
Tests related to types.
Equality Predicates
Tests of equality between any two objects.
Programming Types

Integer Type
Numbers without fractional parts.
Floating Point Type
Numbers with fractional parts and with a large range.
Character Type
The representation of letters, numbers and
control characters.
Sequence Type
Both lists and arrays are classified as sequences.
Cons Cell Type
Cons cells, and lists (which are made from cons cells).
Array Type
Arrays include strings and vectors.
String Type
An (efficient) array of characters.
Vector Type
One-dimensional arrays.
Symbol Type
A multi-use object that refers to a function,
variable, property list, or itself.
Function Type
A piece of executable code you can call from elsewhere.
Macro Type
A method of expanding an expression into another
expression, more fundamental but less pretty.
Primitive Function Type
A function written in C, callable from Lisp.
Byte-Code Type
A function written in Lisp, then compiled.
Autoload Type
A type used for automatically loading seldom-used
List Type

Dotted Pair Notation
An alternative syntax for lists.
Association List Type
A specially constructed list.
Editing Types

Buffer Type
The basic object of editing.
Window Type
What makes buffers visible.
Window Configuration Type
Save what the screen looks like.
Marker Type
A position in a buffer.
Process Type
A process running on the underlying OS.
Stream Type
Receive or send characters.
Keymap Type
What function a keystroke invokes.
Overlay Type
How an overlay is represented.

Integer Basics
Representation and range of integers.
Float Basics
Representation and range of floating point.
Predicates on Numbers
Testing for numbers.
Comparison of Numbers
Equality and inequality predicates.
Arithmetic Operations
How to add, subtract, multiply and divide.
Bitwise Operations
Logical and, or, not, shifting.
Numeric Conversions
Converting float to integer and vice versa.
Math Functions
Trig, exponential and logarithmic functions.
Random Numbers
Obtaining random integers, predictable or not.
Strings and Characters

String Basics
Basic properties of strings and characters.
Predicates for Strings
Testing whether an object is a string or char.
Creating Strings
Functions to allocate new strings.
Text Comparison
Comparing characters or strings.
String Conversion
Converting characters or strings and vice versa.
Formatting Strings
`format': Emacs's analogue of `printf'.
Case Conversion
Case conversion functions.

Cons Cells
How lists are made out of cons cells.
Lists as Boxes
Graphical notation to explain lists.
List-related Predicates
Is this object a list? Comparing two lists.
List Elements
Extracting the pieces of a list.
Building Lists
Creating list structure.
Modifying Lists
Storing new pieces into an existing list.
Sets And Lists
A list can represent a finite mathematical set.
Association Lists
A list can represent a finite relation or mapping.
Modifying Existing List Structure

Replacing an element in a list.
Replacing part of the list backbone.
This can be used to remove or add elements.
Reordering the elements in a list; combining lists.
Sequences, Arrays, and Vectors

Sequence Functions
Functions that accept any kind of sequence.
Characteristics of arrays in Emacs Lisp.
Array Functions
Functions specifically for arrays.
Functions specifically for vectors.

Symbol Components
Symbols have names, values, function definitions
and property lists.
A definition says how a symbol will be used.
Creating Symbols
How symbols are kept unique.
Property Lists
Each symbol has a property list
for recording miscellaneous information.

Intro Eval
Evaluation in the scheme of things.
How to invoke the Lisp interpreter explicitly.
How various sorts of objects are evaluated.
Avoiding evaluation (to put constants in
the program).
Kinds of Forms

Self-Evaluating Forms
Forms that evaluate to themselves.
Symbol Forms
Symbols evaluate as variables.
Classifying Lists
How to distinguish various sorts of list forms.
Function Forms
Forms that call functions.
Macro Forms
Forms that call macros.
Special Forms
``Special forms'' are idiosyncratic primitives,
most of them extremely important.
Functions set up to load files
containing their real definitions.
Control Structures

Evaluation in textual order.
`if', `cond'.
Combining Conditions
`and', `or', `not'.
`while' loops.
Nonlocal Exits
Jumping out of a sequence.
Nonlocal Exits

Catch and Throw
Nonlocal exits for the program's own purposes.
Examples of Catch
Showing how such nonlocal exits can be written.
How errors are signaled and handled.
Arranging to run a cleanup form if an
error happens.

Signaling Errors
How to report an error.
Processing of Errors
What Emacs does when you report an error.
Handling Errors
How you can trap errors and continue execution.
Error Symbols
How errors are classified for trapping them.

Global Variables
Variable values that exist permanently, everywhere.
Constant Variables
Certain "variables" have values that never change.
Local Variables
Variable values that exist only temporarily.
Void Variables
Symbols that lack values.
Defining Variables
A definition says a symbol is used as a variable.
Accessing Variables
Examining values of variables whose names
are known only at run time.
Setting Variables
Storing new values in variables.
Variable Scoping
How Lisp chooses among local and global values.
Buffer-Local Variables
Variable values in effect only in one buffer.
Scoping Rules for Variable Bindings

Scope means where in the program a value
is visible. Comparison with other languages.
Extent means how long in time a value exists.
Impl of Scope
Two ways to implement dynamic scoping.
Using Scoping
How to use dynamic scoping carefully and
avoid problems.
Buffer-Local Variables

Intro to Buffer-Local
Introduction and concepts.
Creating Buffer-Local
Creating and destroying buffer-local bindings.
Default Value
The default value is seen in buffers
that don't have their own buffer-local values.

What Is a Function
Lisp functions vs primitives; terminology.
Lambda Expressions
How functions are expressed as Lisp objects.
Function Names
A symbol can serve as the name of a function.
Defining Functions
Lisp expressions for defining functions.
Calling Functions
How to use an existing function.
Mapping Functions
Applying a function to each element of a list, etc.
Anonymous Functions
Lambda-expressions are functions with no names.
Function Cells
Accessing or setting the function definition
of a symbol.
Related Topics
Cross-references to specific Lisp primitives
that have a special bearing on how functions work.
Lambda Expressions

Lambda Components
The parts of a lambda expression.
Simple Lambda
A simple example.
Argument List
Details and special features of argument lists.
Function Documentation
How to put documentation in a function.

Simple Macro
A basic example.
How, when and why macros are expanded.
Compiling Macros
How macros are expanded by the compiler.
Defining Macros
How to write a macro definition.
Easier construction of list structure.
Problems with Macros
Don't evaluate the macro arguments too many times.
Don't hide the user's variables.

How Programs Do Loading
The `load' function and others.
Setting up a function to autoload.
Named Features
Loading a library if it isn't already loaded.
Repeated Loading
Precautions about loading a file twice.
Byte Compilation

Compilation Functions
Byte compilation functions.
Disassembling byte-code; how to read byte-code.
Advising Functions

Simple Advice
A simple example to explain the basics of advice.
Defining Advice
Detailed description of `defadvice'.
Computed Advice
is to `defadvice' as `fset' is to `defun'.
Activation of Advice
Advice doesn't do anything until you activate it.
Enabling Advice
You can enable or disable each piece of advice.
Preactivation is a way of speeding up the
loading of compiled advice.
Argument Access in Advice
How advice can access the function's arguments.
Subr Arguments
Accessing arguments when advising a primitive.
Combined Definition
How advice is implemented.
Debugging Lisp Programs

How the Emacs Lisp debugger is implemented.
Syntax Errors
How to find syntax errors.
Compilation Errors
How to find errors that show up in
byte compilation.
A source-level Emacs Lisp debugger.
The Lisp Debugger

Error Debugging
Entering the debugger when an error happens.
Function Debugging
Entering it when a certain function is called.
Explicit Debug
Entering it at a certain point in the program.
Using Debugger
What the debugger does; what you see while in it.
Debugger Commands
Commands used while in the debugger.
Invoking the Debugger
How to call the function `debug'.
Internals of Debugger
Subroutines of the debugger, and global variables.
Debugging Invalid Lisp Syntax

Excess Open
How to find a spurious open paren or missing close.
Excess Close
How to find a spurious close paren or missing open.
Reading and Printing Lisp Objects

Streams Intro
Overview of streams, reading and printing.
Input Streams
Various data types that can be used as
input streams.
Input Functions
Functions to read Lisp objects from text.
Output Streams
Various data types that can be used as
output streams.
Output Functions
Functions to print Lisp objects as text.

Intro to Minibuffers
Basic information about minibuffers.
Text from Minibuffer
How to read a straight text string.
Object from Minibuffer
How to read a Lisp object or expression.
How to invoke and customize completion.
Yes-or-No Queries
Asking a question with a simple answer.
Minibuffer Misc
Various customization hooks and variables.

Basic Completion
Low-level functions for completing strings.
(These are too low level to use the minibuffer.)
Minibuffer Completion
Invoking the minibuffer with completion.
Completion Commands
Minibuffer commands that do completion.
High-Level Completion
Convenient special cases of completion
(reading buffer name, file name, etc.)
Reading File Names
Using completion to read file names.
Programmed Completion
Finding the completions for a given file name.
Command Loop

Command Overview
How the command loop reads commands.
Defining Commands
Specifying how a function should read arguments.
Interactive Call
Calling a command, so that it will read arguments.
Command Loop Info
Variables set by the command loop for you to examine.
Input Events
What input looks like when you read it.
Reading Input
How to read input events from the keyboard or mouse.
Waiting for user input or elapsed time.
How C-g works. How to catch or defer quitting.
Prefix Command Arguments
How the commands to set prefix args work.
Recursive Editing
Entering a recursive edit,
and why you usually shouldn't.
Disabling Commands
How the command loop handles disabled commands.
Command History
How the command history is set up, and how accessed.
Keyboard Macros
How keyboard macros are implemented.
Defining Commands

Using Interactive
General rules for `interactive'.
Interactive Codes
The standard letter-codes for reading arguments
in various ways.
Interactive Examples
Examples of how to read interactive arguments.

Keymap Terminology
Definitions of terms pertaining to keymaps.
Format of Keymaps
What a keymap looks like as a Lisp object.
Creating Keymaps
Functions to create and copy keymaps.
Inheritance and Keymaps
How one keymap can inherit the bindings
of another keymap.
Prefix Keys
Defining a key with a keymap as its definition.
Menu Keymaps
A keymap can define a menu for X
or for use from the terminal.
Active Keymaps
Each buffer has a local keymap
to override the standard (global) bindings. Each minor mode can also override them.
Key Lookup
How extracting elements from keymaps works.
Functions for Key Lookup
How to request key lookup.
Changing Key Bindings
Redefining a key in a keymap.
Key Binding Commands
Interactive interfaces for redefining keys.
Scanning Keymaps
Looking through all keymaps, for printing help.
Major and Minor Modes

Major Modes
Defining major modes.
Minor Modes
Defining minor modes.
Mode Line Format
Customizing the text that appears in the mode line.
How to use hooks; how to write code that
provides hooks.
Major Modes

Major Mode Conventions
Coding conventions for keymaps, etc.
Example Major Modes
Text mode and Lisp modes.
Auto Major Mode
How Emacs chooses the major mode automatically.
Mode Help
Finding out how to use a mode.
Minor Modes

Minor Mode Conventions
Tips for writing a minor mode.
Keymaps and Minor Modes
How a minor mode can have its own keymap.
Mode Line Format

Mode Line Data
The data structure that controls the mode line.
Mode Line Variables
Variables used in that data structure.
Putting information into a mode line.

Documentation Basics
Good style for doc strings.
Where to put them. How Emacs stores them.
Accessing Documentation
How Lisp programs can access doc strings.
Keys in Documentation
Substituting current key bindings.
Describing Characters
Making printable descriptions of
non-printing characters and key sequences.
Help Functions
Subroutines used by Emacs help facilities.

Visiting Files
Reading files into Emacs buffers for editing.
Saving Buffers
Writing changed buffers back into files.
Reading from Files
Reading files into other buffers.
Writing to Files
Writing new files from parts of buffers.
File Locks
Locking and unlocking files, to prevent
simultaneous editing by two people.
Information about Files
Testing existence, accessibility, size of files.
Contents of Directories
Getting a list of the files in a directory.
Changing Files
Renaming files, changing protection, etc.
File Names
Decomposing and expanding file names.
Visiting Files

Visiting Functions
The usual interface functions for visiting.
Subroutines of Visiting
Lower-level subroutines that they use.
Information about Files

Testing Accessibility
Is a given file readable? Writable?
Kinds of Files
Is it a directory? A link?
File Attributes
How large is it? Any other names? Etc.
File Names

File Name Components
The directory part of a file name, and the rest.
Directory Names
A directory's name as a directory
is different from its name as a file.
Relative File Names
Some file names are relative to a
current directory.
File Name Expansion
Converting relative file names to absolute ones.
Unique File Names
Generating names for temporary files.
File Name Completion
Finding the completions for a given file name.
Backups and Auto-Saving

Backup Files
How backup files are made; how their names
are chosen.
How auto-save files are made; how their
names are chosen.
`revert-buffer', and how to customize
what it does.
Backup Files

Making Backups
How Emacs makes backup files, and when.
Rename or Copy
Two alternatives: renaming the old file
or copying it.
Numbered Backups
Keeping multiple backups for each source file.
Backup Names
How backup file names are computed; customization.

Buffer Basics
What is a buffer?
Buffer Names
Accessing and changing buffer names.
Buffer File Name
The buffer file name indicates which file
is visited.
Buffer Modification
A buffer is "modified" if it needs to be saved.
Modification Time
Determining whether the visited file was changed
``behind Emacs's back''.
Read Only Buffers
Modifying text is not allowed in a
read-only buffer.
The Buffer List
How to look at all the existing buffers.
Creating Buffers
Functions that create buffers.
Killing Buffers
Buffers exist until explicitly killed.
Current Buffer
Designating a buffer as current
so primitives will access its contents.

Basic Windows
Basic information on using windows.
Splitting Windows
Splitting one window into two windows.
Deleting Windows
Deleting a window gives its space to other windows.
Selecting Windows
The selected window is the one that you edit in.
Cyclic Window Ordering
Moving around the existing windows.
Buffers and Windows
Each window displays the contents of a buffer.
Displaying Buffers
Higher-lever functions for displaying a buffer
and choosing a window for it.
Window Point
Each window has its own location of point.
Window Start
The display-start position controls which text
is on-screen in the window.
Vertical Scrolling
Moving text up and down in the window.
Horizontal Scrolling
Moving text sideways on the window.
Size of Window
Accessing the size of a window.
Resizing Windows
Changing the size of a window.
Window Configurations
Saving and restoring the state of the screen.

Creating Frames
Creating additional frames.
Multiple Displays
Creating frames on other X displays.
Frame Parameters
Controlling frame size, position, font, etc.
Frame Titles
Automatic updating of frame titles.
Deleting Frames
Frames last until explicitly deleted.
Finding All Frames
How to examine all existing frames.
Frames and Windows
A frame contains windows;
display of text always works through windows.
Minibuffers and Frames
How a frame finds the minibuffer to use.
Input Focus
Specifying the selected frame.
Visibility of Frames
Frames may be visible or invisible, or icons.
Raising and Lowering
Raising a frame makes it hide other X windows;
lowering it puts it underneath the others.
Frame Configurations
Saving the state of all frames.
Mouse Tracking
Getting events that say when the mouse moves.
Mouse Position
Asking where the mouse is, or moving it.
Pop-Up Menus
Displaying a menu for the user to select from.
Dialog Boxes
Displaying a box to ask yes or no.
Pointer Shapes
Specifying the shape of the mouse pointer.
Window System Selections
Transferring text to and from other windows.
Color Names
Getting the definitions of color names.
Getting resource values from the server.
Display Feature Testing
Determining the features of a terminal.

The special position where editing takes place.
Changing point.
Temporary motion and buffer changes.
Restricting editing to a portion of the buffer.

Character Motion
Moving in terms of characters.
Word Motion
Moving in terms of words.
Buffer End Motion
Moving to the beginning or end of the buffer.
Text Lines
Moving in terms of lines of text.
Screen Lines
Moving in terms of lines as displayed.
List Motion
Moving by parsing lists and sexps.
Skipping Characters
Skipping characters belonging to a certain set.

Overview of Markers
The components of a marker, and how it relocates.
Predicates on Markers
Testing whether an object is a marker.
Creating Markers
Making empty markers or markers at certain places.
Information from Markers
Finding the marker's buffer or character
Moving Markers
Moving the marker to a new buffer or position.
The Mark
How ``the mark'' is implemented with a marker.
The Region
How to access ``the region''.

Near Point
Examining text in the vicinity of point.
Buffer Contents
Examining text in a general fashion.
Adding new text to a buffer.
Commands for Insertion
User-level commands to insert text.
Removing text from a buffer.
User-Level Deletion
User-level commands to delete text.
The Kill Ring
Where removed text sometimes is saved for
later use.
Undoing changes to the text of a buffer.
Auto Filling
How auto-fill mode is implemented to break lines.
Functions for explicit filling.
How to specify margins for filling commands.
Functions for sorting parts of the buffer.
Functions to insert or adjust indentation.
Computing horizontal positions, and using them.
Case Changes
Case conversion of parts of the buffer.
Text Properties
Assigning Lisp property lists to text characters.
Replacing a given character wherever it appears.
Swapping two portions of a buffer.
How registers are implemented. Accessing
the text or position stored in a register.
Change Hooks
Supplying functions to be run when text is changed.
The Kill Ring

Kill Ring Concepts
What text looks like in the kill ring.
Kill Functions
Functions that kill text.
Yank Commands
Commands that access the kill ring.
Low-Level Kill Ring
Functions and variables for kill ring access.
Internals of Kill Ring
Variables that hold kill-ring data.

Primitive Indent
Functions used to count and insert indentation.
Mode-Specific Indent
Customize indentation for different modes.
Region Indent
Indent all the lines in a region.
Relative Indent
Indent the current line based on previous lines.
Indent Tabs
Adjustable, typewriter-like tab stops.
Motion by Indent
Move to first non-blank character.
Text Properties

Examining Properties
Looking at the properties of one character.
Changing Properties
Setting the properties of a range of text.
Property Search
Searching for where a property changes value.
Special Properties
Particular properties with special meanings.
Format Properties
Properties for representing formatting of text.
Sticky Properties
How inserted text gets properties from
neighboring text.
Saving Properties
Saving text properties in files, and reading
them back.
Lazy Properties
Computing text properties in a lazy fashion
only when text is examined.
Not Intervals
Why text properties do not use
Lisp-visible text intervals.
Non-ASCII Characters

Text Representations
Unibyte and multibyte representations
Converting Representations
Converting unibyte to multibyte and vice versa.
Selecting a Representation
Treating a byte sequence as unibyte or multi.
Character Codes
How unibyte and multibyte relate to
codes of individual characters.
Character Sets
The space of possible characters codes
is divided into various character sets.
Chars and Bytes
More information about multibyte encodings.
Splitting Characters
Converting a character to its byte sequence.
Scanning Charsets
Which character sets are used in a buffer?
Translation of Characters
Translation tables are used for conversion.
Coding Systems
Coding systems are conversions for saving files.
Input Methods
Input methods allow users to enter various
non-ASCII characters without speciak keyboards.
Interacting with the POSIX locale.
Searching and Matching

String Search
Search for an exact match.
Regular Expressions
Describing classes of strings.
Regexp Search
Searching for a match for a regexp.
Match Data
Finding out which part of the text matched
various parts of a regexp, after regexp search.
Saving Match Data
Saving and restoring this information.
Standard Regexps
Useful regexps for finding sentences, pages,...
Searching and Case
Case-independent or case-significant searching.
Regular Expressions

Syntax of Regexps
Rules for writing regular expressions.
Regexp Example
Illustrates regular expression syntax.
Syntax Tables

Syntax Descriptors
How characters are classified.
Syntax Table Functions
How to create, examine and alter syntax tables.
Parsing Expressions
Parsing balanced expressions
using the syntax table.
Standard Syntax Tables
Syntax tables used by various major modes.
Syntax Table Internals
How syntax table information is stored.
Syntax Descriptors

Syntax Class Table
Table of syntax classes.
Syntax Flags
Additional flags each character can have.
Abbrevs And Abbrev Expansion

Abbrev Mode
Setting up Emacs for abbreviation.
Abbrev Tables. Creating and working with abbrev tables.
Defining Abbrevs
Specifying abbreviations and their expansions.
Abbrev Files. Saving abbrevs in files.
Abbrev Expansion. Controlling expansion; expansion subroutines.
Standard Abbrev Tables
Abbrev tables used by various major modes.

Subprocess Creation
Functions that start subprocesses.
Synchronous Processes
Details of using synchronous subprocesses.
Asynchronous Processes
Starting up an asynchronous subprocess.
Deleting Processes
Eliminating an asynchronous subprocess.
Process Information
Accessing run-status and other attributes.
Input to Processes
Sending input to an asynchronous subprocess.
Signals to Processes
Stopping, continuing or interrupting
an asynchronous subprocess.
Output from Processes
Collecting output from an asynchronous subprocess.
Sentinels run when process run-status changes.
Opening network connections.
Receiving Output from Processes

Process Buffers
If no filter, output is put in a buffer.
Filter Functions
Filter functions accept output from the process.
Accepting Output
How to wait until process output arrives.
Operating System Interface

Starting Up
Customizing Emacs start-up processing.
Getting Out
How exiting works (permanent or temporary).
System Environment
Distinguish the name and kind of system.
Terminal Input
Recording terminal input for debugging.
Terminal Output
Recording terminal output for debugging.
Flow Control
How to turn output flow control on or off.
Batch Mode
Running Emacs without terminal interaction.
Starting Up Emacs

Startup Summary
Sequence of actions Emacs performs at start-up.
Init File
Details on reading the init file (`.emacs').
How the terminal-specific Lisp file is read.
Command-Line Arguments
How command line arguments are processed,
and how you can customize them.
Getting out of Emacs

Killing Emacs
Exiting Emacs irreversibly.
Suspending Emacs
Exiting Emacs reversibly.
Emacs Display

Refresh Screen
Clearing the screen and redrawing everything on it.
Folding or wrapping long text lines.
The Echo Area
Where messages are displayed.
Selective Display
Hiding part of the buffer text.
Overlay Arrow
Display of an arrow to indicate position.
Temporary Displays
Displays that go away automatically.
Forcing display update and waiting for user.
How Emacs shows the matching open parenthesis.
Usual Display
How control characters are displayed.
Audible signal to the user.
Window Systems
Which window system is being used.
GNU Emacs Internals

Building Emacs
How to preload Lisp libraries into Emacs.
Pure Storage
A kludge to make preloaded Lisp functions sharable.
Garbage Collection
Reclaiming space for Lisp objects no longer used.
Object Internals
Data formats of buffers, windows, processes.
Writing Emacs Primitives
Writing C code for Emacs.
Object Internals

Buffer Internals
Components of a buffer structure.
Window Internals
Components of a window structure.
Process Internals
Components of a process structure.

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