CHMODSection: FSF (1)
Updated: March 2002
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NAMEchmod - change file access permissions
SYNOPSISchmod [OPTION]... MODE[,MODE]... FILE...
chmod [OPTION]... OCTAL-MODE FILE...
chmod [OPTION]... --reference=RFILE FILE...
DESCRIPTIONThis manual page documents the GNU version of chmod. chmod changes the permissions of each given file according to mode, which can be either a symbolic representation of changes to make, or an octal number representing the bit pattern for the new permissions.
The format of a symbolic mode is `[ugoa...][[+-=][rwxXstugo...]...][,...]'. Multiple symbolic operations can be given, separated by commas.
A combination of the letters `ugoa' controls which users' access to the file will be changed: the user who owns it (u), other users in the file's group (g), other users not in the file's group (o), or all users (a). If none of these are given, the effect is as if `a' were given, but bits that are set in the umask are not affected.
The operator `+' causes the permissions selected to be added to the existing permissions of each file; `-' causes them to be removed; and `=' causes them to be the only permissions that the file has.
The letters `rwxXstugo' select the new permissions for the affected users: read (r), write (w), execute (or access for directories) (x), execute only if the file is a directory or already has execute permission for some user (X), set user or group ID on execution (s), sticky (t), the permissions that the user who owns the file currently has for it (u), the permissions that other users in the file's group have for it (g), and the permissions that other users not in the file's group have for it (o).
A numeric mode is from one to four octal digits (0-7), derived by adding up the bits with values 4, 2, and 1. Any omitted digits are assumed to be leading zeros. The first digit selects the set user ID (4) and set group ID (2) and sticky (1) attributes. The second digit selects permissions for the user who owns the file: read (4), write (2), and execute (1); the third selects permissions for other users in the file's group, with the same values; and the fourth for other users not in the file's group, with the same values.
chmod never changes the permissions of symbolic links; the chmod system call cannot change their permissions. This is not a problem since the permissions of symbolic links are never used. However, for each symbolic link listed on the command line, chmod changes the permissions of the pointed-to file. In contrast, chmod ignores symbolic links encountered during recursive directory traversals.
STICKY FILESOn older Unix systems, the sticky bit caused executable files to be hoarded in swap space. This feature is not useful on modern VM systems, and the Linux kernel ignores the sticky bit on files. Other kernels may use the sticky bit on files for system-defined purposes. On some systems, only the superuser can set the sticky bit on files.
STICKY DIRECTORIESWhen the sticky bit is set on a directory, files in that directory may only be unlinked or renamed by root or their owner. (Without the sticky bit, anyone able to write to the directory can delete or rename files.) The sticky bit is commonly found on directories, such as /tmp, which are world-writable.
Change the mode of each FILE to MODE.
AUTHORWritten by David MacKenzie.
REPORTING BUGSReport bugs to <firstname.lastname@example.org>.
COPYRIGHTCopyright © 2001 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
This is free software; see the source for copying conditions. There is NO warranty; not even for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
SEE ALSOThe full documentation for chmod is maintained as a Texinfo manual. If the info and chmod programs are properly installed at your site, the command
should give you access to the complete manual.
This document was created by man2html, using the manual pages.
Time: 06:18:17 GMT, November 29, 2021