Manpage of MAKE\-KPKG


Section: Debian GNU/Linux manual (1)
Updated: Nov 14 2002
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make-kpkg - build Debian kernel packages from Linux kernel sources  


make-kpkg [options] [target [target ...]]  


This manual page explains the Debian make-kpkg utility, which is used to create the kernel related Debian packages. This utility needs to be run from a top level Linux kernel source directory, which has been previously configured (unless you are using the configure target). Typycally, you run this command as root, or under fakeroot, or tell make-kpkg how to become root, like so:

      make-kpkg --rootcmd fakeroot kernel_image

The Debian package file is created in the parent directory of the kernel source directory where this command is run.  


--help Print out a usage message.
--revision number
Changes the Debian revision number for the packages produced to the argument number. This has certain constraints: the --revision option only has an effect during the configure phase (in other words, if a file called stamp-configure exists, this option has no effect -- run make-kpkg clean or manually remove stamp-configure and stamp-debian for it to have an effect -- I strongly suggest you run make-kpkg clean unless you know what you are doing). Additionally, official source package maintainers provide their own version numbers and data for the official uploads, and hence a number of things, including the Debian revision, is not modified by make-kpkg. If you happen to have an official source, (that would mean that the file debian/official exists, and is not empty), and want to use your own revision number, make sure you remove debian/official before running make-kpkg clean for this option to have an effect. So, if you want to re-run make-kpkg with a different revision number, you have to make sure you start with a clean slate. Secondly, the version may contain only alphanumerics and the characters + . (full stop and plus) and must contain a digit. (Look at the Policy manual for details). Actually, that is a lie: official kernel and modules maintainers have special dispensation to use hyphens, but it is strongly deprecated for most people, since no sanitization of the version number is done, and dpkg and friends may choke on it at the end of the compile unless one knows what one is doing. Optionally, you may prepend the revision with a digit followed by a colon (:). The default is 1.00.Custom unless the environment variable DEBIAN_REVISION_MANDATORY is set, in which case an error is generated if the revision is not set on the command line or the configuration file.
--append-to-version foo
--append_to_version foo
This argument ( foo ) is appended to the value of the EXTRAVERSION variable present in the kernel Makefile. Since EXTRAVERSION is a component of the kernel version, it is also added to the Debian package name, and, as such must obey the policy governing the package name. That means it may contain only lowercase alphanumerics and the characters - + . (full stop, hyphen, and plus). Uppercase letters are not permitted under the Policy for a new package. This over rides the environment variable APPEND_TO_VERSION Please note that you must run a make-kpkg clean after configuring the kernel using make (x|menu)?config, since that creates the file include/linux/version.h without the append_to_version data (foo). This file won't be updated by the make-kpkg run (make-kpkg creates version.h if it doesn't exist, but doesn't touch if exists), so the final kernel will _not_ have the append_to_version data in its version number it shall look for the modules and symbols in all the wrong places. The simplest solution is either to remove include/linux/version.h after configuring and before compiling, or running make-kpkg clean after configuring, before compiling. Note also that once you use --append_to_version foo for configuring, or building the kernel-image, you need to also use the same option in any later invocation of make-kpkg (say, for building stand alone modules, or something). make-kpkg does not remember the argument foo in between invocations (this is different from the behavior of --revision, which we do remember in between invocations). If you are annoyed by make-kpkg whining about using --append_to_version and there already being a file from before, you can set the environment variable VERSION_H_OK which shall shut off the warning.
--flavour foo
This option is now deprecated in favor of --append_to_version. Sets the kernel flavour to the argument foo. The flavour is also appended to the package name. You need a patched Makefile to make this work properly (see /usr/share/doc/kernel-package/Flavours.gz). It may contain only lowercase alphanumerics and the characters - + . (full stop, hyphen, and plus). Uppercase letter are not permitted under the Policy for a new package. NOTE: Hyphens are discouraged. (Look at Chapters 4 of the Policy manual for details). Please note that you shall need to make-kpkg clean FIRST if you wish to recompile the kernel-image using a flavour.
--added-modules foo
--added_modules foo
The argument should be a comma separated list of additional add-on modules (not in the main kernel tree) that you wish to build when you invoke the modules_blah targets. You may give full path names of the directory the modules reside in, or just the module name if it can be found in MODULE_LOC, which defaults to /usr/src/modules. The default is that all modules in MODULE_LOC, are compiled when the modules_blah targets are invoked.
--added-patches foo
--added_patches foo
The argument should be a comma separated list of additional patches to the kernel sources. This automatically sets the patch_the_kernel configuration option to YES.
Unlike the treatment of the modules, you may only give the patch file basename (not the full path name of the patch file). For each file <patch_name> in the list, the following process is followed: If the file can be found in the directories ALL_PATCH_DIR/{apply,unpatch}/, then the file ALL_PATCH_DIR/apply/<patch_name> shall be executed in turn during the configure phase (and presumably this applies the patch). Correspondingly, the file ALL_PATCH_DIR/unpatch/<patch_name> shall be executed in the clean phase. The default is that all patches are applied by running all the executable files in ALL_PATCH_DIR/apply/ if requested (Either by setting the configuration option patch_the_kernel or the environment variable PATCH_THE_KERNEL to YES). Please note that the patches are UN-installed from the source when you run the clean target. This cleanup can be prevented by setting the environment variable NO_UNPATCH_BY_DEFAULT
In the above, ALL_PATCH_DIR defaults to a subdirectory of /usr/src/kernel-patches/.
Some times it would be convenient to have the patches applied when one asks for specific patches using this option, without also having to explicitly set the environment variable. Since setting the environment variable PATCH_THE_KERNEL to YES could be dangerous, (for in that case all patches may be installed when you want none, and did not specify the added_patches option), You may also set the variable PATCH_THE_KERNEL to AUTO, in which case PATCH_THE_KERNEL shall be set to YES for you when you invoke --added-patches foo, but not otherwise. Also, please note that if any patch installs a script in ./debian/image.d/ directory, run-parts shall be called on that directory just before the kernel image package is built. The location of the root of the image package being built shall be passed in the environment variable IMAGE_TOP, and the kernel versions is passed in through the environment variable version. This is a way for the patch to insert any additional files into the image, for example.
--arch foo
This is useful for setting the architecture when you are cross compiling. If you are not cross compiling, the architecture is determined automatically. The same effect can be achieved by setting the environment variable KPKG_ARCH
--cross-compile foo
--cross_compile foo
This is useful for setting the target string when you are cross compiling. The same effect can be achieved by setting the environment variable CROSS_COMPILE
--subarch foo
Some architectures (the Alpha, and the m68k) require a different kernel for each sub-architecture. This option provides a way of specifying it as an argument to make-kpkg. Please note that additional support for sub-architectures may be required in the kernel sources to actually make this do anything. The same effect can be achieved by setting the environment variable KPKG_SUBARCH
This option uses an extended name for the kernel image package by embedding the sub-architecture in the image name, so one could write a script to create multiple sub-architectures one after the other. You may also do this by setting the environment variable ARCH_IN_NAME. Please note that only the package name is affected, not modules locations etc.
--pgpsign name
Set the string used to sign the changes file for any external modules in /usr/src/modules/ using PGP. This option will override the builtin default and the site wide customizations stored in the file /etc/kernel-pkg.conf or ~/.kernel-pkg.conf.
--config target
Change the type of configure done from the default oldconfig. target must be one of oldconfig, config, menuconfig, xconfig; or old, menu, or x. This option is particularly useful when using PATCH_THE_KERNEL if some of the patches change what configuration options are available. Note however that make-kpkg scans the config file at startup for some options, notably the fact that modules are enabled or not, so toggling the status during the delayed configuration results in an error. If needed, created the configuration file as close to the desired one before calling make-kpkg with this switch.
Prints out a list of known targets. See the Section Targets below.
Pass a -n option to the make process so that commands are merely printed to the screen but not actually executed. This is very useful for debugging.
If make-kpkg is generating a kernel-image package, perform any actions necessary for a kernel loaded using initrd. NOTE: this requires a non-standard cramfs initrd patch to the kernel sources, (unless the mkintrd configuration has been modified not to use cramfs) or may result in a unbootable kernel. The patch is generally present in the kernel sources shipped by Debian, but is not present in pristine kernel sources. This option may include extra dependencies, and modifications to maintainer scripts. It has no effect when make-kpkg is not making a kernel-image package. The same effect can be achieved by setting the environment variable INITRD to any non empty value. To avoid a warning at install time, please read kernel-img.conf(5), and add a warn_initrd directive in that file. To avoid the warning ar compile time, please set the environment variable INITRD_OK.
Makes a zImage kernel rather than a bzImage kernel (the default). Useful for people having problems with bzImage kernels.
Makes a bzImage kernel. Useful for people who want a bzImage kernel on sites where the default is zImage kernels.
--rootcmd foo
The command that provides a means of gaining super user access (for example, `sudo' or `fakeroot') as needed by dpkg-buildpackage's -r option.
This option is passed to dpkg-buildpackage, and directs that package not to sign the source. This is only relevant for the buildpackage target.
This option is passed to dpkg-buildpackage, and directs that package not to sign the changelog. This is only relevant for the buildpackage target.

The options maybe shortened to the smallest unique string, and may be entered with either a - or a -- prefix, and you may use a space or an = symbol between an option string and a value. You may also use the form option=value; for details these and other variant forms supported, please read man Getopt::Long (3perl).  


Cleans the kernel source directory of all files created by target build, and runs a make distclean. (Please look at a Linux kernel Makefile for details). Please note that although we take care of the list of current kernel configuration contained in the file .config, the file include/linux/autoconf.h is not preserved.
This target runs the targets clean, and binary, and produces the complete package using dpkg-buildpackage
This target produces all four Debian kernel packages by running the targets kernel_source, kernel_headers, kernel_doc and kernel_image.
This target produces a debianised package of the Linux kernel sources. If the environment variable SOURCE_CLEAN_HOOK points to an executable, then that executable shall be run from the temporary (top) directory of the kernel sources just before packaging it, ./debian/tmp-source/usr/src/kernel-source-X.X.XX, so people may take any action they see fit (remove arch trees, prune version control directories, find . -type d -name CVS -prune -exec rm -rf {} \; etc). This has no effect on anything other than the kernel sources that are being packaged -- if the script operates on the current directory and its children, the original source tree should remain intact. The environment variables HEADER_CLEAN_HOOK and DOC_CLEAN_HOOK are similiar. The should point tp executables, then that executable shall be run from the temporary (top) directory of the kernel headers and coumentation just before packaging respectively, so people may take any action they see fit. This also has no effect on anything other than the sources that are being packaged.
This target produces a Debian package containing the header files included in the Linux kernel.
This target produces a Debian package containing the documentation included in the Linux kernel.
This target produces a Debian package of the Linux kernel source image, and any modules configured in the kernel configuration file .config. If there is no .config file in the kernel source directory, a default configuration is provided similar to the one used to create the Debian boot-floppies.
If the file ./debian/post-install exists, and is an executable, it is run just before the kernel image package is created. Also, please note that if there are any scripts in ./debian/image.d/ directory, run-parts shall be called on that directory just before the kernel image package is built. The location of the root of the image package being built shall be passed in the environment variable IMAGE_TOP, and the kernel versions is passed in through the environment variable version for all these scripts.
On initial installation, the image package updates symbolic links in the symbolic link destination directory (the root directory by default) to point to the new kernel image in the image directory, which is nominally /boot. If the symbolic link already points to the current kernel image, no action is taken. If a prior symbolic link exists, it is rotated out with a suffix.old, and a new symbolic link, properly updated is installed in its place (the variable minimal_swap in /etc/kernel-img.conf further modifies this behaviour). No action is taken on upgrades.
On installation, it also offers to run the Linux loader, LILO (or alternates like loadlin, SILO, QUIK, VMELILO, ZIPL, yaboot, PALO or GRUB ), creating a configuration file for supported boot loaders if needed. At that time it also offers to put the new kernel on a floppy, formatting the floppy if needed. On deletion, the package checks the version of the kernel running, and refuses to delete a running kernel. grub rates a special mention here, since grub may not need to be rerun after installing a kernel image, though an automated change to the menu list would be nice on install and removal of kernel image packages.
Please see the documentation about hooks in kernel-img.conf(5). These hooks are variables that can be pointed to scripts that add or remove a line from the grub menu list at kernel image install and remove times. A sample script to add lines to a grub menu file is included in the directory
This target, used by target kernel_image above, compiles the Linux kernel image.
This target allows you to build all add-on modules and packages that are very dependent on the precise kernel version they are compiled for at the same time you build your kernel image. This target expects to find the modules or packages under /usr/src/modules, and, for all such directories, changes to /usr/src/modules/x, and runs the kdist rule in the local debian.rules file. This target should create the Debian module package(s), and may also produce a compressed tar file, and a compressed diff file, with md5sums recorded in a changes file using dpkg-genchanges. The file is signed by the same identity that would be used to sign the kernel packages. This option is used by maintainers uploading the package to the Debian archives.
This target allows you to configure all packages under /usr/src/modules. This is useful if you need to manually modify some aspects of the configuration, or if you want to manually compile the add on modules.
This target allows you to build all packages under /usr/src/modules, but does not create the source or diff files, and does not create and sign a changes file. This is the only modules related option you need if you just want to compile the add on modules image files for installation on one or more machines. Generally called in conjunction with kernel_image, especially if also using the option append_to_version (prevents spurious warnings).
This target allows you to clean all packages under /usr/src/modules, and this should be all that is needed to undo the effect of any of the other modules_ targets.
This target runs configure (actually, config_target, set by --config which defaults to oldconfig ) early, so you may edit files generated by make config in the kernel source directory and not have them stomped by make-kpkg later.
This target creates the ./debian directory, and optionally patches the source. This is called by the configure target. You may use this target to have the sources patched, and then manually run the configuration step.
This is a special target for the libc-dev maintainer, who can use it to create the headers package that libc needs. Please note that it is dangerous to create a libc-kheaders package that is different from the headers libc was compiled with; it is known to subtly break systems. Please look at /usr/share/kernel-package/README.headers for details. Creating and installing a self created libc-kheaders package may break your system unless you know what you are doing. You have been warned.




Apart from the runtime options, the debian.rules file run by make-kpkg also looks for a per user configuration file ~/.kernel-pkg.conf. Failing that, it looks for site-wide defaults in the file /etc/kernel-pkg.conf. The default configuration allows there to be a site wide override for the full name and email address of the person responsible for maintaining the kernel packages on the site, but the /etc/kernel-pkg.conf (or ~/.kernel-pkg.conf. ) file is actually a Makefile snippet, and any legal make directives may be included in there. Note: Caution is urged with this file, since you can totally change the way that the make is run by suitably editing this file. Please look at /usr/share/doc/kernel-package/Problems.gz for a list of known problems while compiling kernel images. Extensive tutorial like documentation is also available in /usr/share/doc/kernel-package/README.gz and it is recommended that one read that before using this utility.  


kernel-pkg.conf(5), kernel-img.conf(5), Getopt::Long(3perl), dpkg-deb(1), dpkg-source(1), make(1), The Programmers manual, The GNU Make manual, and the extensive documentation in the directory /usr/share/doc/kernel-package  


This manual page was written by Manoj Srivastava <>, for the Debian GNU/Linux system.




This document was created by man2html, using the manual pages.
Time: 19:57:09 GMT, December 08, 2021