Manpages

Manpage of MMAP

MMAP

Section: Linux Programmer's Manual (2)
Updated: 2000-03-25
Index
Return to Main Contents
 

NAME

mmap, munmap - map or unmap files or devices into memory  

SYNOPSIS

#include <unistd.h>
#include <sys/mman.h>

#ifdef _POSIX_MAPPED_FILES

void * mmap(void *start, size_t length, int prot , int flags, int fd, off_t offset);

int munmap(void *start, size_t length);

#endif  

DESCRIPTION

The mmap function asks to map length bytes starting at offset offset from the file (or other object) specified by the file descriptor fd into memory, preferably at address start. This latter address is a hint only, and is usually specified as 0. The actual place where the object is mapped is returned by mmap. The prot argument describes the desired memory protection (and must not conflict with the open mode of the file). It has bits
PROT_EXEC
Pages may be executed.
PROT_READ
Pages may be read.
PROT_WRITE
Pages may be written.
PROT_NONE
Pages may not be accessed.

The flags parameter specifies the type of the mapped object, mapping options and whether modifications made to the mapped copy of the page are private to the process or are to be shared with other references. It has bits

MAP_FIXED
Do not select a different address than the one specified. If the specified address cannot be used, mmap will fail. If MAP_FIXED is specified, start must be a multiple of the pagesize. Use of this option is discouraged.
MAP_SHARED
Share this mapping with all other processes that map this object. Storing to the region is equivalent to writing to the file. The file may not actually be updated until msync(2) or munmap(2) are called.
MAP_PRIVATE
Create a private copy-on-write mapping. Stores to the region do not affect the original file.

You must specify exactly one of MAP_SHARED and MAP_PRIVATE.

The above three flags are described in POSIX.1b (formerly POSIX.4). Linux also knows about MAP_DENYWRITE, MAP_EXECUTABLE, MAP_NORESERVE, MAP_LOCKED, MAP_GROWSDOWN and MAP_ANON(YMOUS).

offset should ordinarily be a multiple of the page size returned by getpagesize(2).

Memory mapped by mmap is preserved across fork(2), with the same attributes.

The munmap system call deletes the mappings for the specified address range, and causes further references to addresses within the range to generate invalid memory references. The region is also automatically unmapped when the process is terminated. On the other hand, closing the file descriptor does not unmap the region.

 

RETURN VALUE

On success, mmap returns a pointer to the mapped area. On error, MAP_FAILED (-1) is returned, and errno is set appropriately. On success, munmap returns 0, on failure -1, and errno is set (probably to EINVAL).  

ERRORS

EBADF
fd is not a valid file descriptor (and MAP_ANONYMOUS was not set).
EACCES
MAP_PRIVATE was requested, but fd is not open for reading. Or MAP_SHARED was requested and PROT_WRITE is set, but fd is not open in read/write (O_RDWR) mode.
EINVAL
We don't like start or length or offset. (E.g., they are too large, or not aligned on a PAGESIZE boundary.)
ETXTBSY
MAP_DENYWRITE was set but the object specified by fd is open for writing.
EAGAIN
The file has been locked, or too much memory has been locked.
ENOMEM
No memory is available.

Use of a mapped region can result in these signals:

SIGSEGV
Attempted write into a region specified to mmap as read-only.
SIGBUS
Attempted access to a portion of the buffer that does not correspond to the file (for example, beyond the end of the file, including the case where another process has truncated the file).
 

CONFORMING TO

SVr4, POSIX.1b (formerly POSIX.4), 4.4BSD. Svr4 documents additional error codes ENXIO and ENODEV.  

SEE ALSO

getpagesize(2), msync(2), shm_open(2), B.O. Gallmeister, POSIX.4, O'Reilly, pp. 128-129 and 389-391.


 

Index

NAME
SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
RETURN VALUE
ERRORS
CONFORMING TO
SEE ALSO

This document was created by man2html, using the manual pages.
Time: 18:52:06 GMT, December 08, 2021