summarizes information about previously executed commands as
recorded in the
file. In addition, it condenses this data into a summary file named
which contains the number of times the command was called and the system
resources used. The information can also be summarized on a per-user
will save this information into a file named
If no arguments are specified,
will print information about all of the commands in the
If called with a file name as the last argument,
will use that file instead of the system's default
will sort the output by sum of user and system time.
If command names have unprintable characters, or are only called once,
will sort them into a group called `***other'.
If more than one sorting option is specified, the list will
be sorted by the one specified last on the command line.
The output fields are labeled as follows:
sum of system and user time in cpu seconds
"real time" in cpu seconds
cpu-time averaged core usage, in 1k units
average number of I/O operations per execution
total number of I/O operations
cpu storage integral (kilo-core seconds)
user cpu time in cpu seconds
system time in cpu seconds
Note that these column titles do not appear in the first row of the
table, but after each numeric entry (as units of measurement) in every
row. For example, you might see `79.29re', meaning 79.29 cpu seconds
of "real time".
An asterisk will appear after the name of commands that forked but didn't call
takes care to implement a number of features not found in other versions.
For example, most versions of
don't pay attention to flags like `--print-seconds' and
`--sort-num-calls' when printing out commands when combined with
the `--user-summary' or `--print-users' flags. GNU
pays attention to these flags if they are applicable.
stores the average memory use as a short rather than a double, resulting
in some round-off errors. GNU
uses double the whole way through.
The availability of these program options depends on your operating
system. In specific, the members that appear in the
of your system's process accounting header file (usually
) determine which flags will be present. For example, if your system's
doesn't have the `ac_mem' field, the installed
will not support the `--sort-cpu-avmem', `--sort-ksec', `-k', or
In short, all of these flags may not be available on your machine.
not to sort those command names with unprintable characters and those
used only once into the
Sort the output by the sum of user and system time divided by the
number of calls.
Print percentages of total time for the command's user, system,
and real time values.
Sort the output by the average number of disk I/O operations.
Print and sort the output by the total number of disk I/O operations.
When using the `--threshold' option, assume that all answers to
interactive queries will be affirmative.
Don't read the information in the system's default
Instead of printing total minutes for each category, print seconds per call.
Sort the output by cpu time average memory usage.
Print and sort the output by the cpu-storage integral.
Print separate columns for system and user time; usually the two
are added together and listed as `cpu'.
Print the number of processes and number of CPU minutes on a
Sort the output by the number of calls. This is the default sorting method.
Sort output items in reverse order.
Merge the summarized accounting data into the summary files
For each entry, print the ratio of real time to the sum of system
and user times. If the sum of system and user times is too small
to report--the sum is zero--`*ignore*' will appear in this field.
For each command in the accounting file, print the userid and
command name. After printing all entries, quit. *Note*: this flag
supersedes all others.
-v num --threshold num
Print commands which were executed
times or fewer and await a
reply from the terminal. If the response begins with `y', add the
command to the `**junk**' group.
It really doesn't make any sense to me that the stock version of
separates statistics for a particular executable depending on
whether or not that command forked. Therefore, GNU
lumps this information together unless this option is specified.
Use this flag to tell the program what
should be (in hertz). This option is useful if you are trying to view
file created on another machine which has the same byte order and file
format as your current machine, but has a different value for
Print verbose internal information.
Print the version number of
Prints the usage string and default locations of system files to
standard output and exits.
Sort the output by the "real time" field.
Write summaries by user ID to
rather than the system's default
Write summaries by command name to
rather than the system's default
Read from the file
instead of the system's default
The raw system wide process accounting file. See
for further details.
A summary of system process accounting sorted by command.
A summary of system process accounting sorted by user ID.
There is not yet a wide experience base for comparing the output of GNU
with versions of
in many other systems. The problem is that the data files grow big in a short
time and therefore require a lot of disk space.
The GNU accounting utilities were written by Noel Cragg
<email@example.com>. The man page was adapted from the accounting
texinfo page by Susan Kleinmann <firstname.lastname@example.org>.