Mapping Functions ================= A "mapping function" applies a given function to each element of a list or other collection. Emacs Lisp has several such functions; `mapcar' and `mapconcat', which scan a list, are described here. Note: Creating Symbols, for the function `mapatoms' which maps over the symbols in an obarray. Note: Hash Access, for the function `maphash' which maps over key/value associations in a hash table. These mapping functions do not allow char-tables because a char-table is a sparse array whose nominal range of indices is very large. To map over a char-table in a way that deals properly with its sparse nature, use the function `map-char-table' (Note: Char-Tables). - Function: mapcar function sequence `mapcar' applies FUNCTION to each element of SEQUENCE in turn, and returns a list of the results. The argument SEQUENCE can be any kind of sequence except a char-table; that is, a list, a vector, a bool-vector, or a string. The result is always a list. The length of the result is the same as the length of SEQUENCE. For example: (mapcar 'car '((a b) (c d) (e f))) => (a c e) (mapcar '1+ [1 2 3]) => (2 3 4) (mapcar 'char-to-string "abc") => ("a" "b" "c") ;; Call each function in `my-hooks'. (mapcar 'funcall my-hooks) (defun mapcar* (function &rest args) "Apply FUNCTION to successive cars of all ARGS. Return the list of results." ;; If no list is exhausted, (if (not (memq 'nil args)) ;; apply function to CARs. (cons (apply function (mapcar 'car args)) (apply 'mapcar* function ;; Recurse for rest of elements. (mapcar 'cdr args))))) (mapcar* 'cons '(a b c) '(1 2 3 4)) => ((a . 1) (b . 2) (c . 3)) - Function: mapc function sequence `mapc' is like `mapcar' except that FUNCTION is used for side-effects only--the values it returns are ignored, not collected into a list. `mapc' always returns SEQUENCE. - Function: mapconcat function sequence separator `mapconcat' applies FUNCTION to each element of SEQUENCE: the results, which must be strings, are concatenated. Between each pair of result strings, `mapconcat' inserts the string SEPARATOR. Usually SEPARATOR contains a space or comma or other suitable punctuation. The argument FUNCTION must be a function that can take one argument and return a string. The argument SEQUENCE can be any kind of sequence except a char-table; that is, a list, a vector, a bool-vector, or a string. (mapconcat 'symbol-name '(The cat in the hat) " ") => "The cat in the hat" (mapconcat (function (lambda (x) (format "%c" (1+ x)))) "HAL-8000" "") => "IBM.9111"
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