`join': Join lines on a common field ==================================== `join' writes to standard output a line for each pair of input lines that have identical join fields. Synopsis: join [OPTION]... FILE1 FILE2 Either FILE1 or FILE2 (but not both) can be `-', meaning standard input. FILE1 and FILE2 should be already sorted in increasing textual order on the join fields, using the collating sequence specified by the `LC_COLLATE' locale. Unless the `-t' option is given, the input should be sorted ignoring blanks at the start of the join field, as in `sort -b'. If the `--ignore-case' option is given, lines should be sorted without regard to the case of characters in the join field, as in `sort -f'. The defaults are: the join field is the first field in each line; fields in the input are separated by one or more blanks, with leading blanks on the line ignored; fields in the output are separated by a space; each output line consists of the join field, the remaining fields from FILE1, then the remaining fields from FILE2. The program accepts the following options. Also see Note: Common options. `-a FILE-NUMBER' Print a line for each unpairable line in file FILE-NUMBER (either `1' or `2'), in addition to the normal output. `-e STRING' Replace those output fields that are missing in the input with STRING. `-i' `--ignore-case' Ignore differences in case when comparing keys. With this option, the lines of the input files must be ordered in the same way. Use `sort -f' to produce this ordering. `-1 FIELD' `-j1 FIELD' Join on field FIELD (a positive integer) of file 1. `-2 FIELD' `-j2 FIELD' Join on field FIELD (a positive integer) of file 2. `-j FIELD' Equivalent to `-1 FIELD -2 FIELD'. `-n' Use numerical order when joining FILE1 and FILE2. They must be sorted numerically beforehand. `-o FIELD-LIST...' Construct each output line according to the format in FIELD-LIST. Each element in FIELD-LIST is either the single character `0' or has the form M.N where the file number, M, is `1' or `2' and N is a positive field number. A field specification of `0' denotes the join field. In most cases, the functionality of the `0' field spec may be reproduced using the explicit M.N that corresponds to the join field. However, when printing unpairable lines (using either of the `-a' or `-v' options), there is no way to specify the join field using M.N in FIELD-LIST if there are unpairable lines in both files. To give `join' that functionality, POSIX invented the `0' field specification notation. The elements in FIELD-LIST are separated by commas or blanks. Multiple FIELD-LIST arguments can be given after a single `-o' option; the values of all lists given with `-o' are concatenated together. All output lines - including those printed because of any -a or -v option - are subject to the specified FIELD-LIST. `-t CHAR' Use character CHAR as the input and output field separator. `-v FILE-NUMBER' Print a line for each unpairable line in file FILE-NUMBER (either `1' or `2'), instead of the normal output. In addition, when GNU `join' is invoked with exactly one argument, options `--help' and `--version' are recognized. Note: Common options.
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