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   The GNU `make' utility automatically determines which pieces of a
large program need to be recompiled, and issues the commands to
recompile them.

   This edition of the `GNU Make Manual', last updated 04 April 2000,
documents GNU `make' Version 3.79.

   This manual describes `make' and contains the following chapters:

Overview of `make'.
An introduction to `make'.
Makefiles tell `make' what to do.
Rules describe when a file must be remade.
Commands say how to remake a file.
Using Variables
You can use variables to avoid repetition.
Use or ignore parts of the makefile based
on the values of variables.
Many powerful ways to manipulate text.
Invoking make
Running. How to invoke `make' on the command line.
Implicit Rules
Use implicit rules to treat many files alike,
based on their file names.
How `make' can update library archives.
Features GNU `make' has over other `make's.
What GNU `make' lacks from other `make's.
Makefile Conventions
Conventions for makefiles in GNU programs.
Quick Reference
A quick reference for experienced users.
Error Messages
A list of common errors generated by `make'.
Complex Makefile
A real example of a straightforward,
but nontrivial, makefile.
Concept Index
Index of Concepts
Name Index
Index of Functions, Variables, & Directives
 --- The Detailed Node Listing ---

Overview of `make'

Preparing and Running Make
On Reading this Text
Problems and Bugs
An Introduction to Makefiles

Rule Introduction
What a rule looks like.
Simple Makefile
A Simple Makefile
How Make Works
How `make' Processes This Makefile
Variables Simplify
Variables Make Makefiles Simpler
make Deduces
Letting `make' Deduce the Commands
Combine By Prerequisite
Another Style of Makefile
Rules for Cleaning the Directory
Writing Makefiles

Makefile Contents
What makefiles contain.
Makefile Names
How to name your makefile.
How one makefile can use another makefile.
The environment can specify extra makefiles.
Remaking Makefiles
How makefiles get remade.
Overriding Makefiles
How to override part of one makefile
with another makefile.
Reading Makefiles
How makefiles are parsed.
Writing Rules

Rule Example
An example explained.
Rule Syntax
General syntax explained.
Using wildcard characters such as `*'.
Directory Search
Searching other directories for source files.
Phony Targets
Using a target that is not a real file's name.
Force Targets
You can use a target without commands
or prerequisites to mark other targets as phony.
Empty Targets
When only the date matters and the
files are empty.
Special Targets
Targets with special built-in meanings.
Multiple Targets
When to make use of several targets in a rule.
Multiple Rules
How to use several rules with the same target.
Static Pattern
Static pattern rules apply to multiple targets
and can vary the prerequisites according to the target name.
How to use a special kind of rule to allow
several independent rules for one target.
Automatic Prerequisites
How to automatically generate rules giving
prerequisites from source files themselves.
Using Wildcard Characters in File Names

Wildcard Examples
Several examples
Wildcard Pitfall
Problems to avoid.
Wildcard Function
How to cause wildcard expansion where
it does not normally take place.
Searching Directories for Prerequisites

General Search
Specifying a search path that applies
to every prerequisite.
Selective Search
Specifying a search path
for a specified class of names.
Search Algorithm
When and how search paths are applied.
How to write shell commands that work together
with search paths.
How search paths affect implicit rules.
Directory search for link libraries.
Static Pattern Rules

Static Usage
The syntax of static pattern rules.
Static versus Implicit
When are they better than implicit rules?
Writing the Commands in Rules

How to control when commands are echoed.
How commands are executed.
How commands can be executed in parallel.
What happens after a command execution error.
What happens when a command is interrupted.
Invoking `make' from makefiles.
Defining canned sequences of commands.
Empty Commands
Defining useful, do-nothing commands.
Recursive Use of `make'

MAKE Variable
The special effects of using `$(MAKE)'.
How to communicate variables to a sub-`make'.
How to communicate options to a sub-`make'.
-w Option
How the `-w' or `--print-directory' option
helps debug use of recursive `make' commands.
How to Use Variables

How to use the value of a variable.
Variables come in two flavors.
Advanced features for referencing a variable.
All the ways variables get their values.
How to set a variable in the makefile.
How to append more text to the old value
of a variable.
Override Directive
How to set a variable in the makefile even if
the user has set it with a command argument.
An alternate way to set a variable
to a verbatim string.
Variable values can come from the environment.
Some special variables have predefined
meanings for use with implicit rules.
Advanced Features for Reference to Variables

Substitution Refs
Referencing a variable with
substitutions on the value.
Computed Names
Computing the name of the variable to refer to.
Conditional Parts of Makefiles

Conditional Example
Example of a conditional
Conditional Syntax
The syntax of conditionals.
Testing Flags
Conditionals that test flags.
Functions for Transforming Text

Syntax of Functions
How to write a function call.
Text Functions
General-purpose text manipulation functions.
File Name Functions
Functions for manipulating file names.
Foreach Function
Repeat some text with controlled variation.
Call Function
Expand a user-defined function.
Origin Function
Find where a variable got its value.
Shell Function
Substitute the output of a shell command.
How to Run `make'

Makefile Arguments
How to specify which makefile to use.
How to use goal arguments to specify which
parts of the makefile to use.
Instead of Execution
How to use mode flags to specify what
kind of thing to do with the commands in the makefile other than simply execute them.
Avoiding Compilation
How to avoid recompiling certain files.
How to override a variable to specify
an alternate compiler and other things.
How to proceed past some errors, to
test compilation.
Options Summary
Summary of Options
Using Implicit Rules

Using Implicit
How to use an existing implicit rule
to get the commands for updating a file.
Catalogue of Rules
A list of built-in implicit rules.
Implicit Variables
How to change what predefined rules do.
Chained Rules
How to use a chain of implicit rules.
Pattern Rules
How to define new implicit rules.
Last Resort
How to defining commands for rules
which cannot find any.
Suffix Rules
The old-fashioned style of implicit rule.
Implicit Rule Search
The precise algorithm for applying
implicit rules.
Defining and Redefining Pattern Rules

Pattern Intro
An introduction to pattern rules.
Pattern Examples
Examples of pattern rules.
How to use automatic variables in the
commands of implicit rules.
Pattern Match
How patterns match.
Match-Anything Rules
Precautions you should take prior to
defining rules that can match any target file whatever.
Canceling Rules
How to override or cancel built-in rules.
Using `make' to Update Archive Files

Archive Members
Archive members as targets.
Archive Update
The implicit rule for archive member targets.
Archive Pitfalls
Dangers to watch out for when using archives.
Archive Suffix Rules
You can write a special kind of suffix rule
for updating archives.
Implicit Rule for Archive Member Targets

Archive Symbols
How to update archive symbol directories.

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