Info Node: (make.info)Top
The GNU `make' utility automatically determines which pieces of a
large program need to be recompiled, and issues the commands to
This edition of the `GNU Make Manual', last updated 04 April 2000,
documents GNU `make' Version 3.79.
This manual describes `make' and contains the following chapters:
Overview Overview of `make'.
Introduction An introduction to `make'.
Makefiles Makefiles tell `make' what to do.
Rules Rules describe when a file must be remade.
Commands Commands say how to remake a file.
Using Variables You can use variables to avoid repetition.
Conditionals Use or ignore parts of the makefile based
on the values of variables.
Functions Many powerful ways to manipulate text.
Invoking make Running. How to invoke `make' on the command line.
Implicit Rules Use implicit rules to treat many files alike,
based on their file names.
Archives How `make' can update library archives.
Features Features GNU `make' has over other `make's.
Missing What GNU `make' lacks from other `make's.
Makefile Conventions Conventions for makefiles in GNU programs.
Quick Reference A quick reference for experienced users.
Error Messages A list of common errors generated by `make'.
Complex Makefile A real example of a straightforward,
but nontrivial, makefile.
Concept Index Index of Concepts
Name Index Index of Functions, Variables, & Directives
--- The Detailed Node Listing ---
Overview of `make'
Preparing Preparing and Running Make
Reading On Reading this Text
Bugs Problems and Bugs
An Introduction to Makefiles
Rule Introduction What a rule looks like.
Simple Makefile A Simple Makefile
How Make Works How `make' Processes This Makefile
Variables Simplify Variables Make Makefiles Simpler
make Deduces Letting `make' Deduce the Commands
Combine By Prerequisite Another Style of Makefile
Cleanup Rules for Cleaning the Directory
Makefile Contents What makefiles contain.
Makefile Names How to name your makefile.
Include How one makefile can use another makefile.
MAKEFILES Variable The environment can specify extra makefiles.
Remaking Makefiles How makefiles get remade.
Overriding Makefiles How to override part of one makefile
with another makefile.
Reading Makefiles How makefiles are parsed.
Rule Example An example explained.
Rule Syntax General syntax explained.
Wildcards Using wildcard characters such as `*'.
Directory Search Searching other directories for source files.
Phony Targets Using a target that is not a real file's name.
Force Targets You can use a target without commands
or prerequisites to mark other
targets as phony.
Empty Targets When only the date matters and the
files are empty.
Special Targets Targets with special built-in meanings.
Multiple Targets When to make use of several targets in a rule.
Multiple Rules How to use several rules with the same target.
Static Pattern Static pattern rules apply to multiple targets
and can vary the prerequisites according to
the target name.
Double-Colon How to use a special kind of rule to allow
several independent rules for one target.
Automatic Prerequisites How to automatically generate rules giving
prerequisites from source files themselves.
Using Wildcard Characters in File Names
Wildcard Examples Several examples
Wildcard Pitfall Problems to avoid.
Wildcard Function How to cause wildcard expansion where
it does not normally take place.
Searching Directories for Prerequisites
General Search Specifying a search path that applies
to every prerequisite.
Selective Search Specifying a search path
for a specified class of names.
Search Algorithm When and how search paths are applied.
Commands/Search How to write shell commands that work together
with search paths.
Implicit/Search How search paths affect implicit rules.
Libraries/Search Directory search for link libraries.
Static Pattern Rules
Static Usage The syntax of static pattern rules.
Static versus Implicit When are they better than implicit rules?
Writing the Commands in Rules
Echoing How to control when commands are echoed.
Execution How commands are executed.
Parallel How commands can be executed in parallel.
Errors What happens after a command execution error.
Interrupts What happens when a command is interrupted.
Recursion Invoking `make' from makefiles.
Sequences Defining canned sequences of commands.
Empty Commands Defining useful, do-nothing commands.
Recursive Use of `make'
MAKE Variable The special effects of using `$(MAKE)'.
Variables/Recursion How to communicate variables to a sub-`make'.
Options/Recursion How to communicate options to a sub-`make'.
-w Option How the `-w' or `--print-directory' option
helps debug use of recursive `make' commands.
How to Use Variables
Reference How to use the value of a variable.
Flavors Variables come in two flavors.
Advanced Advanced features for referencing a variable.
Values All the ways variables get their values.
Setting How to set a variable in the makefile.
Appending How to append more text to the old value
of a variable.
Override Directive How to set a variable in the makefile even if
the user has set it with a command argument.
Defining An alternate way to set a variable
to a verbatim string.
Environment Variable values can come from the environment.
Automatic Some special variables have predefined
meanings for use with implicit rules.
Advanced Features for Reference to Variables
Substitution Refs Referencing a variable with
substitutions on the value.
Computed Names Computing the name of the variable to refer to.
Conditional Parts of Makefiles
Conditional Example Example of a conditional
Conditional Syntax The syntax of conditionals.
Testing Flags Conditionals that test flags.
Functions for Transforming Text
Syntax of Functions How to write a function call.
Text Functions General-purpose text manipulation functions.
File Name Functions Functions for manipulating file names.
Foreach Function Repeat some text with controlled variation.
Call Function Expand a user-defined function.
Origin Function Find where a variable got its value.
Shell Function Substitute the output of a shell command.
How to Run `make'
Makefile Arguments How to specify which makefile to use.
Goals How to use goal arguments to specify which
parts of the makefile to use.
Instead of Execution How to use mode flags to specify what
kind of thing to do with the commands
in the makefile other than simply
Avoiding Compilation How to avoid recompiling certain files.
Overriding How to override a variable to specify
an alternate compiler and other things.
Testing How to proceed past some errors, to
Options Summary Summary of Options
Using Implicit Rules
Using Implicit How to use an existing implicit rule
to get the commands for updating a file.
Catalogue of Rules A list of built-in implicit rules.
Implicit Variables How to change what predefined rules do.
Chained Rules How to use a chain of implicit rules.
Pattern Rules How to define new implicit rules.
Last Resort How to defining commands for rules
which cannot find any.
Suffix Rules The old-fashioned style of implicit rule.
Implicit Rule Search The precise algorithm for applying
Defining and Redefining Pattern Rules
Pattern Intro An introduction to pattern rules.
Pattern Examples Examples of pattern rules.
Automatic How to use automatic variables in the
commands of implicit rules.
Pattern Match How patterns match.
Match-Anything Rules Precautions you should take prior to
defining rules that can match any
target file whatever.
Canceling Rules How to override or cancel built-in rules.
Using `make' to Update Archive Files
Archive Members Archive members as targets.
Archive Update The implicit rule for archive member targets.
Archive Pitfalls Dangers to watch out for when using archives.
Archive Suffix Rules You can write a special kind of suffix rule
for updating archives.
Implicit Rule for Archive Member Targets
Archive Symbols How to update archive symbol directories.
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