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GNU text utilities

   This manual documents version 2.0 of the GNU text utilities.

Caveats, overview, and authors.
Common options
Common options.
Output of entire files
cat tac nl od
Formatting file contents
fmt pr fold
Output of parts of files
head tail split csplit
Summarizing files
wc sum cksum md5sum
Operating on sorted files
sort uniq comm ptx tsort
Operating on fields within a line
cut paste join
Operating on characters
tr expand unexpand
Opening the software toolbox
The software tools philosophy.
General index.
 --- The Detailed Node Listing ---

Output of entire files

cat invocation
Concatenate and write files.
tac invocation
Concatenate and write files in reverse.
nl invocation
Number lines and write files.
od invocation
Write files in octal or other formats.
Formatting file contents

fmt invocation
Reformat paragraph text.
pr invocation
Paginate or columnate files for printing.
fold invocation
Wrap input lines to fit in specified width.
Output of parts of files

head invocation
Output the first part of files.
tail invocation
Output the last part of files.
split invocation
Split a file into fixed-size pieces.
csplit invocation
Split a file into context-determined pieces.
Summarizing files

wc invocation
Print byte, word, and line counts.
sum invocation
Print checksum and block counts.
cksum invocation
Print CRC checksum and byte counts.
md5sum invocation
Print or check message-digests.
Operating on sorted files

sort invocation
Sort text files.
uniq invocation
Uniquify files.
comm invocation
Compare two sorted files line by line.
ptx invocation
Produce a permuted index of file contents.
tsort invocation
Topological sort.
`ptx': Produce permuted indexes

General options in ptx
Options which affect general program behavior.
Charset selection in ptx
Underlying character set considerations.
Input processing in ptx
Input fields, contexts, and keyword selection.
Output formatting in ptx
Types of output format, and sizing the fields.
Compatibility in ptx
The GNU extensions to `ptx'
Operating on fields within a line

cut invocation
Print selected parts of lines.
paste invocation
Merge lines of files.
join invocation
Join lines on a common field.
Operating on characters

tr invocation
Translate, squeeze, and/or delete characters.
expand invocation
Convert tabs to spaces.
unexpand invocation
Convert spaces to tabs.
`tr': Translate, squeeze, and/or delete characters

Character sets
Specifying sets of characters.
Changing one characters to another.
Squeezing repeats and deleting.
Warnings in tr
Warning messages.
Opening the software toolbox

Toolbox introduction
Toolbox introduction
I/O redirection
I/O redirection
The who command
The `who' command
The cut command
The `cut' command
The sort command
The `sort' command
The uniq command
The `uniq' command
Putting the tools together
Putting the tools together

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