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The Gnus Newsreader

   You can read news (and mail) from within Emacs by using Gnus.  The
news can be gotten by any nefarious means you can think of--NNTP, local
spool or your mbox file.  All at the same time, if you want to push your

   This manual corresponds to Gnus 5.9.0.

Starting Up
Finding news can be a pain.
The Group Buffer
Selecting, subscribing and killing groups.
The Summary Buffer
Reading, saving and posting articles.
The Article Buffer
Displaying and handling articles.
Composing Messages
Information on sending mail and news.
Select Methods
Gnus reads all messages from various select methods.
Assigning values to articles.
General purpose settings.
The End
Farewell and goodbye.
Terminology, Emacs intro, FAQ, History, Internals.
Variable, function and concept index.
Key Index
Key Index.
 --- The Detailed Node Listing ---

Starting Gnus

Finding the News
Choosing a method for getting news.
The First Time
What does Gnus do the first time you start it?
The Server is Down
How can I read my mail then?
Slave Gnusae
You can have more than one Gnus active at a time.
Fetching a Group
Starting Gnus just to read a group.
New Groups
What is Gnus supposed to do with new groups?
Startup Files
Those pesky startup files---`.newsrc'.
Auto Save
Recovering from a crash.
The Active File
Reading the active file over a slow line Takes Time.
Changing Servers
You may want to move from one server to another.
Startup Variables
Other variables you might change.
New Groups

Checking New Groups
Determining what groups are new.
Subscription Methods
What Gnus should do with new groups.
Filtering New Groups
Making Gnus ignore certain new groups.
The Group Buffer

Group Buffer Format
Information listed and how you can change it.
Group Maneuvering
Commands for moving in the group buffer.
Selecting a Group
Actually reading news.
Group Data
Changing the info for a group.
Subscription Commands
Unsubscribing, killing, subscribing.
Group Levels
Levels? What are those, then?
Group Score
A mechanism for finding out what groups you like.
Marking Groups
You can mark groups for later processing.
Foreign Groups
Creating and editing groups.
Group Parameters
Each group may have different parameters set.
Listing Groups
Gnus can list various subsets of the groups.
Sorting Groups
Re-arrange the group order.
Group Maintenance
Maintaining a tidy `.newsrc' file.
Browse Foreign Server
You can browse a server. See what it has to offer.
Exiting Gnus
Stop reading news and get some work done.
Group Topics
A folding group mode divided into topics.
Misc Group Stuff
Other stuff that you can to do.
Group Buffer Format

Group Line Specification
Deciding how the group buffer is to look.
Group Modeline Specification
The group buffer modeline.
Group Highlighting
Having nice colors in the group buffer.
Group Topics

Topic Variables
How to customize the topics the Lisp Way.
Topic Commands
Interactive E-Z commands.
Topic Sorting
Sorting each topic individually.
Topic Topology
A map of the world.
Topic Parameters
Parameters that apply to all groups in a topic.
Misc Group Stuff

Scanning New Messages
Asking Gnus to see whether new messages have arrived.
Group Information
Information and help on groups and Gnus.
Group Timestamp
Making Gnus keep track of when you last read a group.
File Commands
Reading and writing the Gnus files.
The Summary Buffer

Summary Buffer Format
Deciding how the summary buffer is to look.
Summary Maneuvering
Moving around the summary buffer.
Choosing Articles
Reading articles.
Paging the Article
Scrolling the current article.
Reply Followup and Post
Posting articles.
Marking Articles
Marking articles as read, expirable, etc.
You can limit the summary buffer.
How threads are made.
How articles and threads are sorted.
Asynchronous Fetching
Gnus might be able to pre-fetch articles.
Article Caching
You may store articles in a cache.
Persistent Articles
Making articles expiry-resistant.
Article Backlog
Having already read articles hang around.
Saving Articles
Ways of customizing article saving.
Decoding Articles
Gnus can treat series of (uu)encoded articles.
Article Treatment
The article buffer can be mangled at will.
MIME Commands
Doing MIMEy things with the articles.
Character set issues.
Article Commands
Doing various things with the article buffer.
Summary Sorting
Sorting the summary buffer in various ways.
Finding the Parent
No child support? Get the parent.
Alternative Approaches
Reading using non-default summaries.
Tree Display
A more visual display of threads.
Mail Group Commands
Some commands can only be used in mail groups.
Various Summary Stuff
What didn't fit anywhere else.
Exiting the Summary Buffer
Returning to the Group buffer.
Crosspost Handling
How crossposted articles are dealt with.
Duplicate Suppression
An alternative when crosspost handling fails.
Summary Buffer Format

Summary Buffer Lines
You can specify how summary lines should look.
To From Newsgroups
How to not display your own name.
Summary Buffer Mode Line
You can say how the mode line should look.
Summary Highlighting
Making the summary buffer all pretty and nice.
Choosing Articles

Choosing Commands
Commands for choosing articles.
Choosing Variables
Variables that influence these commands.
Reply, Followup and Post

Summary Mail Commands
Sending mail.
Summary Post Commands
Sending news.
Summary Message Commands
Other Message-related commands.
Canceling and Superseding
``Whoops, I shouldn't have called him that.''
Marking Articles

Unread Articles
Marks for unread articles.
Read Articles
Marks for read articles.
Other Marks
Marks that do not affect readedness.
Setting Marks
How to set and remove marks.
Generic Marking Commands
How to customize the marking.
Setting Process Marks
How to mark articles for later processing.

Customizing Threading
Variables you can change to affect the threading.
Thread Commands
Thread based commands in the summary buffer.
Customizing Threading

Loose Threads
How Gnus gathers loose threads into bigger threads.
Filling In Threads
Making the threads displayed look fuller.
More Threading
Even more variables for fiddling with threads.
Low-Level Threading
You thought it was over... but you were wrong!
Decoding Articles

Uuencoded Articles
Uudecode articles.
Shell Archives
Unshar articles.
PostScript Files
Split PostScript.
Other Files
Plain save and binhex.
Decoding Variables
Variables for a happy decoding.
Viewing Files
You want to look at the result of the decoding?
Decoding Variables

Rule Variables
Variables that say how a file is to be viewed.
Other Decode Variables
Other decode variables.
Uuencoding and Posting
Variables for customizing uuencoding.
Article Treatment

Article Highlighting
You want to make the article look like fruit salad.
Article Fontisizing
Making emphasized text look nice.
Article Hiding
You also want to make certain info go away.
Article Washing
Lots of way-neat functions to make life better.
Article Buttons
Click on URLs, Message-IDs, addresses and the like.
Article Date
Grumble, UT!
Article Signature
What is a signature?
Article Miscellania
Various other stuff.
Alternative Approaches

Pick and Read
First mark articles and then read them.
Binary Groups
Auto-decode all articles.
Various Summary Stuff

Summary Group Information
Information oriented commands.
Searching for Articles
Multiple article commands.
Summary Generation Commands
(Re)generating the summary buffer.
Really Various Summary Commands
Those pesky non-conformant commands.
The Article Buffer

Hiding Headers
Deciding what headers should be displayed.
Using MIME
Pushing articles through MIME before reading them.
Customizing Articles
Tailoring the look of the articles.
Article Keymap
Keystrokes available in the article buffer.
Misc Article
Other stuff.
Composing Messages

Mailing and replying.
Posting Server
What server should you post via?
Mail and Post
Mailing and posting at the same time.
Archived Messages
Where Gnus stores the messages you've sent.
Posting Styles
An easier way to specify who you are.
Postponing messages and rejected messages.
Rejected Articles
What happens if the server doesn't like your article?
Select Methods

The Server Buffer
Making and editing virtual servers.
Getting News
Reading USENET news with Gnus.
Getting Mail
Reading your personal mail with Gnus.
Browsing the Web
Getting messages from a plethora of Web sources.
Other Sources
Reading directories, files, SOUP packets.
Combined Groups
Combining groups into one group.
Gnus Unplugged
Reading news and mail offline.
The Server Buffer

Server Buffer Format
You can customize the look of this buffer.
Server Commands
Commands to manipulate servers.
Example Methods
Examples server specifications.
Creating a Virtual Server
An example session.
Server Variables
Which variables to set.
Servers and Methods
You can use server names as select methods.
Unavailable Servers
Some servers you try to contact may be down.
Getting News

Reading news from an NNTP server.
News Spool
Reading news from the local spool.
Getting Mail

Mail in a Newsreader
Important introductory notes.
Getting Started Reading Mail
A simple cookbook example.
Splitting Mail
How to create mail groups.
Mail Sources
How to tell Gnus where to get mail from.
Mail Back End Variables
Variables for customizing mail handling.
Fancy Mail Splitting
Gnus can do hairy splitting of incoming mail.
Group Mail Splitting
Use group customize to drive mail splitting.
Incorporating Old Mail
What about the old mail you have?
Expiring Mail
Getting rid of unwanted mail.
Washing Mail
Removing cruft from the mail you get.
Dealing with duplicated mail.
Not Reading Mail
Using mail back ends for reading other files.
Choosing a Mail Back End
Gnus can read a variety of mail formats.
Mail Sources

Mail Source Specifiers
How to specify what a mail source is.
Mail Source Customization
Some variables that influence things.
Fetching Mail
Using the mail source specifiers.
Choosing a Mail Back End

Unix Mail Box
Using the (quite) standard Un*x mbox.
Rmail Babyl
Emacs programs use the rmail babyl format.
Mail Spool
Store your mail in a private spool?
MH Spool
An mhspool-like back end.
Mail Folders
Having one file for each group.
Comparing Mail Back Ends
An in-depth looks at pros and cons.
Browsing the Web

Web Searches
Creating groups from articles that match a string.
Reading the Slashdot comments.
The Ultimate Bulletin Board systems.
Web Archive
Reading mailing list archived on web.
Other Sources

Directory Groups
You can read a directory as if it was a newsgroup.
Anything Groups
Dired? Who needs dired?
Document Groups
Single files can be the basis of a group.
Reading SOUP packets ``offline''.
Mail-To-News Gateways
Posting articles via mail-to-news gateways.
Using Gnus as a IMAP client.
Document Groups

Document Server Internals
How to add your own document types.

SOUP Commands
Commands for creating and sending SOUP packets
SOUP Groups
A back end for reading SOUP packets.
SOUP Replies
How to enable `nnsoup' to take over mail and news.

Splitting in IMAP
Splitting mail with nnimap.
Editing IMAP ACLs
Limiting/enabling other users access to a mailbox.
Expunging mailboxes
Equivalent of a "compress mailbox" button.
Combined Groups

Virtual Groups
Combining articles from many groups.
Kibozed Groups
Looking through parts of the newsfeed for articles.
Gnus Unplugged

Agent Basics
How it all is supposed to work.
Agent Categories
How to tell the Gnus Agent what to download.
Agent Commands
New commands for all the buffers.
Agent Expiry
How to make old articles go away.
Agent and IMAP
How to use the Agent with IMAP.
Outgoing Messages
What happens when you post/mail something?
Agent Variables
Customizing is fun.
Example Setup
An example `.gnus.el' file for offline people.
Batching Agents
How to fetch news from a `cron' job.
Agent Caveats
What you think it'll do and what it does.
Agent Categories

Category Syntax
What a category looks like.
The Category Buffer
A buffer for maintaining categories.
Category Variables
Agent Commands

Group Agent Commands
Summary Agent Commands
Server Agent Commands

Summary Score Commands
Adding score entries for the current group.
Group Score Commands
General score commands.
Score Variables
Customize your scoring. (My, what terminology).
Score File Format
What a score file may contain.
Score File Editing
You can edit score files by hand as well.
Adaptive Scoring
Big Sister Gnus knows what you read.
Home Score File
How to say where new score entries are to go.
Followups To Yourself
Having Gnus notice when people answer you.
Scoring Tips
How to score effectively.
Reverse Scoring
That problem child of old is not problem.
Global Score Files
Earth-spanning, ear-splitting score files.
Kill Files
They are still here, but they can be ignored.
Converting Kill Files
Translating kill files to score files.
Getting predictions on what you like to read.
Advanced Scoring
Using logical expressions to build score rules.
Score Decays
It can be useful to let scores wither away.

Using GroupLens
How to make Gnus use GroupLens.
Rating Articles
Letting GroupLens know how you rate articles.
Displaying Predictions
Displaying predictions given by GroupLens.
GroupLens Variables
Customizing GroupLens.
Advanced Scoring

Advanced Scoring Syntax
A definition.
Advanced Scoring Examples
What they look like.
Advanced Scoring Tips
Getting the most out of it.

A convention used by many treatment commands.
Making Gnus ask you many questions.
Symbolic Prefixes
How to supply some Gnus functions with options.
Formatting Variables
You can specify what buffers should look like.
Windows Configuration
Configuring the Gnus buffer windows.
Faces and Fonts
How to change how faces look.
How to speed Gnus up.
Mode Lines
Displaying information in the mode lines.
Highlighting and Menus
Making buffers look all nice and cozy.
Get tendinitis in ten easy steps!
Gnus can do things behind your back.
How to avoid spam and other fatty foods.
Some actions can be undone.
What to do if you're a moderator.
XEmacs Enhancements
There are more pictures and stuff under XEmacs.
Fuzzy Matching
What's the big fuzz?
Thwarting Email Spam
A how-to on avoiding unsolicited commercial email.
Various Various
Things that are really various.
Formatting Variables

Formatting Basics
A formatting variable is basically a format string.
Mode Line Formatting
Some rules about mode line formatting variables.
Advanced Formatting
Modifying output in various ways.
User-Defined Specs
Having Gnus call your own functions.
Formatting Fonts
Making the formatting look colorful and nice.
XEmacs Enhancements

How to display pictures of what your reading.
Show all those happy faces the way they were meant to be shown.
Other XEmacsy Gnusey variables.

Picon Basics
What are picons and How do I get them.
Picon Requirements
Don't go further if you aren't using XEmacs.
Easy Picons
Displaying Picons---the easy way.
Hard Picons
The way you should do it. You'll learn something.
Picon Useless Configuration
Other variables you can trash/tweak/munge/play with.

How Gnus got where it is today.
On Writing Manuals
Why this is not a beginner's guide.
We use really difficult, like, words here.
Tailoring Gnus to your needs.
What you might try if things do not work.
Gnus Reference Guide
Rilly, rilly technical stuff.
Emacs for Heathens
A short introduction to Emacsian terms.
Frequently Asked Questions
A question-and-answer session.

Gnus Versions
What Gnus versions have been released.
Other Gnus Versions
Other Gnus versions that also have been released.
What's the point of Gnus?
Just how compatible is Gnus with GNUS?
Gnus tries to conform to all standards.
Gnus can be run on a few modern Emacsen.
Gnus Development
How Gnus is developed.
Oodles of people.
New Features
Pointers to some of the new stuff in Gnus.
New Features

ding Gnus
New things in Gnus 5.0/5.1, the first new Gnus.
September Gnus
The Thing Formally Known As Gnus 5.2/5.3.
Red Gnus
Third time best---Gnus 5.4/5.5.
Quassia Gnus
Two times two is four, or Gnus 5.6/5.7.
Pterodactyl Gnus
Pentad also starts with P, AKA Gnus 5.8/5.9.

Slow/Expensive Connection
You run a local Emacs and get the news elsewhere.
Slow Terminal Connection
You run a remote Emacs.
Little Disk Space
You feel that having large setup files is icky.
Slow Machine
You feel like buying a faster machine.
Gnus Reference Guide

Gnus Utility Functions
Common functions and variable to use.
Back End Interface
How Gnus communicates with the servers.
Score File Syntax
A BNF definition of the score file standard.
How Gnus stores headers internally.
A handy format for storing mucho numbers.
Group Info
The group info format.
Extended Interactive
Symbolic prefixes and stuff.
Emacs/XEmacs Code
Gnus can be run under all modern Emacsen.
Various File Formats
Formats of files that Gnus use.
Back End Interface

Required Back End Functions
Functions that must be implemented.
Optional Back End Functions
Functions that need not be implemented.
Error Messaging
How to get messages and report errors.
Writing New Back Ends
Extending old back ends.
Hooking New Back Ends Into Gnus
What has to be done on the Gnus end.
Mail-like Back Ends
Some tips on mail back ends.
Various File Formats

Active File Format
Information on articles and groups available.
Newsgroups File Format
Group descriptions.
Emacs for Heathens

Entering text and executing commands.
Emacs Lisp
The built-in Emacs programming language.

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