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The Emacs Editor

   Emacs is the extensible, customizable, self-documenting real-time
display editor.  This Info file describes how to edit with Emacs and
some of how to customize it; it corresponds to GNU Emacs version
21.2.  For information on extending Emacs, see *Note Emacs Lisp:

How to get the latest Emacs distribution.
The GNU General Public License gives you permission
to redistribute GNU Emacs on certain terms; it also explains that there is no warranty.
GNU Free Documentation License
The license for this documentation.
An introduction to Emacs concepts.
The glossary.
Information about Emacs version 20.
Mac OS
Using Emacs in the Mac.
Using Emacs on MS-DOS (otherwise known as "MS-DOG").
What's GNU? Gnu's Not Unix!
Major contributors to GNU Emacs.
Indexes (nodes containing large menus)
Key Index
An item for each standard Emacs key sequence.
Command Index
An item for each command name.
Variable Index
An item for each documented variable.
Concept Index
An item for each concept.
Option Index
An item for every command-line option.
Important General Concepts
How to interpret what you see on the screen.
User Input
Kinds of input events (characters, buttons,
function keys).
Key sequences: what you type to request one
editing action.
Named functions run by key sequences to do editing.
Text Characters
Character set for text (the contents of buffers
and strings).
Entering Emacs
Starting Emacs from the shell.
Stopping or killing Emacs.
Command Arguments
Hairy startup options.
Fundamental Editing Commands
The most basic editing commands.
Entering arguments that are prompted for.
Invoking commands by their names.
Commands for asking Emacs about its commands.
Important Text-Changing Commands
The mark: how to delimit a ``region'' of text.
Killing text.
Recovering killed text. Moving text.
Accumulating Text
Other ways of copying text.
Operating on the text inside a rectangle on the screen.
Saving a text string or a location in the buffer.
Controlling what text is displayed.
Finding or replacing occurrences of a string.
Commands especially useful for fixing typos.
Major Structures of Emacs
All about handling files.
Multiple buffers; editing several files at once.
Viewing two pieces of text at once.
Running the same Emacs session in multiple X windows.
Using non-ASCII character sets (the MULE features).
Advanced Features
Major Modes
Text mode vs. Lisp mode vs. C mode ...
Editing the white space at the beginnings of lines.
Commands and modes for editing English.
Commands and modes for editing programs.
Compiling, running and debugging programs.
Features for maintaining large programs.
How to define text abbreviations to reduce
the number of characters you must type.
Editing pictures made up of characters
using the quarter-plane screen model.
Sending Mail
Sending mail in Emacs.
Reading mail in Emacs.
You can ``edit'' a directory to manage files in it.
The calendar and diary facilities.
How to read netnews with Emacs.
Executing shell commands from Emacs.
Emacs Server
Using Emacs as an editing server for `mail', etc.
Printing buffers or regions.
Printing buffers or regions as PostScript.
PostScript Variables
Customizing the PostScript printing commands.
Sorting lines, paragraphs or pages within Emacs.
Restricting display and editing to a portion
of the buffer.
Splitting apart columns to edit them
in side-by-side windows.
Editing Binary Files
Using Hexl mode to edit binary files.
Saving Emacs Sessions
Saving Emacs state from one session to the next.
Recursive Edit
A command can allow you to do editing
"within the command". This is called a "recursive editing level".
Emulating some other editors with Emacs.
Following links in buffers.
Dissociated Press
Dissociating text for fun.
Various games and hacks.
Modifying the behavior of Emacs.
Recovery from Problems
Quitting and aborting.
What to do if Emacs is hung or malfunctioning.
How and when to report a bug.
How to contribute improvements to Emacs.
How to get help for your own Emacs needs.
Here are some other nodes which are really inferiors of the ones
already listed, mentioned here so you can get to them in one step:

 --- The Detailed Node Listing ---

The Organization of the Screen

The place in the text where editing commands operate.
Echo Area
Short messages appear at the bottom of the screen.
Mode Line
Interpreting the mode line.
Menu Bar
How to use the menu bar.
Basic Editing Commands

Inserting Text
Inserting text by simply typing it.
Moving Point
How to move the cursor to the place where you want to
change something.
Deleting and killing text.
Undoing recent changes in the text.
Basic Files. Visiting, creating, and saving files.
Basic Help. Asking what a character does.
Blank Lines
Commands to make or delete blank lines.
Continuation Lines
Lines too wide for the screen.
Position Info
What page, line, row, or column is point on?
Numeric arguments for repeating a command.
The Minibuffer

Minibuffer File
Entering file names with the minibuffer.
Minibuffer Edit
How to edit in the minibuffer.
An abbreviation facility for minibuffer input.
Minibuffer History
Reusing recent minibuffer arguments.
Re-executing commands that used the minibuffer.

Help Summary
Brief list of all Help commands.
Key Help
Asking what a key does in Emacs.
Name Help
Asking about a command, variable or function name.
Asking what pertains to a given topic.
Library Keywords
Finding Lisp libraries by keywords (topics).
Language Help
Help relating to international language support.
Misc Help
Other help commands.
The Mark and the Region

Setting Mark
Commands to set the mark.
Transient Mark
How to make Emacs highlight the region--
when there is one.
Using Region
Summary of ways to operate on contents of the region.
Marking Objects
Commands to put region around textual units.
Mark Ring
Previous mark positions saved so you can go back there.
Global Mark Ring
Previous mark positions in various buffers.
Deletion and Killing

Commands for deleting small amounts of text and
blank areas.
Killing by Lines
How to kill entire lines of text at one time.
Other Kill Commands
Commands to kill large regions of text and
syntactic units such as words and sentences.

Kill Ring
Where killed text is stored. Basic yanking.
Appending Kills
Several kills in a row all yank together.
Earlier Kills
Yanking something killed some time ago.

Saving positions in registers.
Saving text in registers.
Saving rectangles in registers.
Saving window configurations in registers.
File names in registers.
Bookmarks are like registers, but persistent.
Controlling the Display

Moving text up and down in a window.
Horizontal Scrolling
Moving text left and right in a window.
Follow Mode
Follow mode lets two windows scroll as one.
Selective Display
Hiding lines with lots of indentation.
Optional Mode Line
Optional mode line display features.
Text Display
How text is normally displayed.
Display Custom
Information on variables for customizing display.
Searching and Replacement

Incremental Search
Search happens as you type the string.
Nonincremental Search
Specify entire string and then search.
Word Search
Search for sequence of words.
Regexp Search
Search for match for a regexp.
Syntax of regular expressions.
Search Case
To ignore case while searching, or not.
Search, and replace some or all matches.
Other Repeating Search
Operating on all matches for some regexp.
Replacement Commands

Unconditional Replace
Replacing all matches for a string.
Regexp Replace
Replacing all matches for a regexp.
Replacement and Case
How replacements preserve case of letters.
Query Replace
How to use querying.
Commands for Fixing Typos

Kill Errors
Commands to kill a batch of recently entered text.
Exchanging two characters, words, lines, lists...
Fixing Case
Correcting case of last word entered.
Apply spelling checker to a word or a whole buffer.
File Handling

File Names
How to type and edit file-name arguments.
Visiting a file prepares Emacs to edit the file.
Saving makes your changes permanent.
Reverting cancels all the changes not saved.
Auto Save
Auto Save periodically protects against loss of data.
File Aliases
Handling multiple names for one file.
Version Control
Version control systems (RCS, CVS and SCCS).
Creating, deleting, and listing file directories.
Comparing Files
Finding where two files differ.
Misc File Ops
Other things you can do on files.
Compressed Files
Accessing compressed files.
Remote Files
Accessing files on other sites.
Quoted File Names
Quoting special characters in file names.
Saving Files

How Emacs saves the old version of your file.
How Emacs protects against simultaneous editing
of one file by two users.
Version Control

Introduction to VC
How version control works in general.
VC Mode Line
How the mode line shows version control status.
Basic VC Editing
How to edit a file under version control.
Old Versions
Examining and comparing old versions.
Secondary VC Commands
The commands used a little less frequently.
Multiple lines of development.
Sets of file versions treated as a unit.
Miscellaneous VC
Various other commands and features of VC.
Customizing VC
Variables that change VC's behavior.
Using Multiple Buffers

Select Buffer
Creating a new buffer or reselecting an old one.
List Buffers
Getting a list of buffers that exist.
Misc Buffer
Renaming; changing read-onliness; copying text.
Kill Buffer
Killing buffers you no longer need.
Several Buffers
How to go through the list of all buffers
and operate variously on several of them.
Indirect Buffers
An indirect buffer shares the text of another buffer.
Multiple Windows

Basic Window
Introduction to Emacs windows.
Split Window
New windows are made by splitting existing windows.
Other Window
Moving to another window or doing something to it.
Pop Up Window
Finding a file or buffer in another window.
Force Same Window
Forcing certain buffers to appear in the selected
window rather than in another window.
Change Window
Deleting windows and changing their sizes.
Frames and X Windows

Mouse Commands
Moving, cutting, and pasting, with the mouse.
Secondary Selection
Cutting without altering point and mark.
Using the clipboard for selections.
Mouse References
Using the mouse to select an item from a list.
Menu Mouse Clicks
Mouse clicks that bring up menus.
Mode Line Mouse
Mouse clicks on the mode line.
Creating Frames
Creating additional Emacs frames with various contents.
Frame Commands
Iconifying, deleting, and switching frames.
How to make and use a speedbar frame.
Multiple Displays
How one Emacs job can talk to several displays.
Special Buffer Frames
You can make certain buffers have their own frames.
Frame Parameters
Changing the colors and other modes of frames.
Scroll Bars
How to enable and disable scroll bars; how to use them.
Wheeled Mice
Using mouse wheels for scrolling.
Menu Bars
Enabling and disabling the menu bar.
Tool Bars
Enabling and disabling the tool bar.
Dialog Boxes
Controlling use of dialog boxes.
How to change the display style using faces.
Font Lock
Minor mode for syntactic highlighting using faces.
Highlight Changes
Using colors to show where you changed the buffer.
Highlight Interactively
Tell Emacs what text to highlight.
Trailing Whitespace
Showing possibly-spurious trailing whitespace.
Showing "tooltips", AKA "ballon help" for active text.
Mouse Avoidance
Moving the mouse pointer out of the way.
Non-Window Terminals
Multiple frames on terminals that show only one.
XTerm Mouse
Using the mouse in an XTerm terminal emulator.
International Character Set Support

International Chars
Basic concepts of multibyte characters.
Enabling Multibyte
Controlling whether to use multibyte characters.
Language Environments
Setting things up for the language you use.
Input Methods
Entering text characters not on your keyboard.
Select Input Method
Specifying your choice of input methods.
Coding Systems
Character set conversion when you read and
write files, and so on.
Recognize Coding
How Emacs figures out which conversion to use.
Specify Coding
Various ways to choose which conversion to use.
Fontsets are collections of fonts
that cover the whole spectrum of characters.
Defining Fontsets
Defining a new fontset.
Single-Byte Character Support
You can pick one European character set to use without multibyte characters.
Major Modes

Choosing Modes
How major modes are specified or chosen.

Indentation Commands
Various commands and techniques for indentation.
Tab Stops
You can set arbitrary "tab stops" and then
indent to the next tab stop when you want to.
Just Spaces
You can request indentation using just spaces.
Commands for Human Languages

Moving over and killing words.
Moving over and killing sentences.
Moving over paragraphs.
Moving over pages.
Filling or justifying text.
Changing the case of text.
Text Mode
The major modes for editing text files.
Outline Mode
Editing outlines.
TeX Mode
Editing input to the formatter TeX.
Nroff Mode
Editing input to the formatter nroff.
Formatted Text
Editing formatted text directly in WYSIWYG fashion.
Filling Text

Auto Fill
Auto Fill mode breaks long lines automatically.
Fill Commands
Commands to refill paragraphs and center lines.
Fill Prefix
Filling paragraphs that are indented
or in a comment, etc.
Adaptive Fill
How Emacs can determine the fill prefix automatically.
Editing Programs

Program Modes
Major modes for editing programs.
Commands to operate on major top-level parts
of a program.
Program Indent
Adjusting indentation to show the nesting.
Inserting, killing, and aligning comments.
Commands that operate on parentheses.
Getting documentation of functions you plan to call.
Displaying blocks selectively.
Symbol Completion
Completion on symbol names of your program or language.
Making identifiersLikeThis more readable.
Misc for Programs
Other Emacs features useful for editing programs.
C Modes
Special commands of C, C++, Objective-C,
Java, and Pike modes.
Fortran mode and its special features.
Asm Mode
Asm mode and its special features.
Top-Level Definitions, or Defuns

Left Margin Paren
An open-paren or similar opening delimiter
starts a defun if it is at the left margin.
Moving by Defuns
Commands to move over or mark a major definition.
Making buffer indexes as menus.
Which Function
Which Function mode shows which function you are in.
Indentation for Programs

Basic Indent
Indenting a single line.
Multi-line Indent
Commands to reindent many lines at once.
Lisp Indent
Specifying how each Lisp function should be indented.
C Indent
Extra features for indenting C and related modes.
Custom C Indent
Controlling indentation style for C and related modes.
Commands for Editing with Parentheses

Expressions with balanced parentheses.
Moving by Parens
Commands for moving up, down and across
in the structure of parentheses.
Insertion of a close-delimiter flashes matching open.
Manipulating Comments

Comment Commands
Inserting, killing, and indenting comments.
Multi-Line Comments
Commands for adding and editing multi-line comments.
Options for Comments
Customizing the comment features.
Documentation Lookup

Info Lookup
Looking up library functions and commands
in Info files.
Man Page
Looking up man pages of library functions and commands.
Lisp Doc
Looking up Emacs Lisp functions, etc.
C and Related Modes

Motion in C
Commands to move by C statements, etc.
Electric C
Colon and other chars can automatically reindent.
Hungry Delete
A more powerful DEL command.
Other C Commands
Filling comments, viewing expansion of macros,
and other neat features.
Comments in C
Options for customizing comment style.
Fortran Mode

Fortran Motion. Moving point by statements or subprograms.
Fortran Indent. Indentation commands for Fortran.
Fortran Comments. Inserting and aligning comments.
Fortran Autofill. Auto fill minor mode for Fortran.
Fortran Columns. Measuring columns for valid Fortran.
Fortran Abbrev. Built-in abbrevs for Fortran keywords.
Compiling and Testing Programs

Compiling programs in languages other
than Lisp (C, Pascal, etc.).
Compilation Mode
The mode for visiting compiler errors.
Compilation Shell
Customizing your shell properly
for use in the compilation buffer.
Running symbolic debuggers for non-Lisp programs.
Executing Lisp
Various modes for editing Lisp programs,
with different facilities for running the Lisp programs.
Lisp Libraries
Creating Lisp programs to run in Emacs.
Lisp Interaction
Executing Lisp in an Emacs buffer.
Lisp Eval
Executing a single Lisp expression in Emacs.
External Lisp
Communicating through Emacs with a separate Lisp.
Running Debuggers Under Emacs

Starting GUD
How to start a debugger subprocess.
Debugger Operation
Connection between the debugger and source buffers.
Commands of GUD
Key bindings for common commands.
GUD Customization
Defining your own commands for GUD.
Maintaining Programs

Change Log
Maintaining a change history for your program.
Go direct to any function in your program in one
command. Tags remembers which file it is in.
A convenient way of merging two versions of a program.
Tags Tables

Tag Syntax
Tag syntax for various types of code and text files.
Create Tags Table
Creating a tags table with `etags'.
Select Tags Table
How to visit a tags table.
Find Tag
Commands to find the definition of a specific tag.
Tags Search
Using a tags table for searching and replacing.
List Tags
Listing and finding tags defined in a file.
Merging Files with Emerge

Overview of Emerge
How to start Emerge. Basic concepts.
Submodes of Emerge
Fast mode vs. Edit mode.
Skip Prefers mode and Auto Advance mode.
State of Difference
You do the merge by specifying state A or B
for each difference.
Merge Commands
Commands for selecting a difference,
changing states of differences, etc.
Exiting Emerge
What to do when you've finished the merge.
Combining in Emerge
How to keep both alternatives for a difference.
Fine Points of Emerge

Abbrev Concepts
Fundamentals of defined abbrevs.
Defining Abbrevs
Defining an abbrev, so it will expand when typed.
Expanding Abbrevs
Controlling expansion: prefixes, canceling expansion.
Editing Abbrevs
Viewing or editing the entire list of defined abbrevs.
Saving Abbrevs
Saving the entire list of abbrevs for another session.
Dynamic Abbrevs
Abbreviations for words already in the buffer.
Editing Pictures

Basic Picture
Basic concepts and simple commands of Picture Mode.
Insert in Picture
Controlling direction of cursor motion
after "self-inserting" characters.
Tabs in Picture
Various features for tab stops and indentation.
Rectangles in Picture
Clearing and superimposing rectangles.
Sending Mail

Mail Format
Format of the mail being composed.
Mail Headers
Details of permitted mail header fields.
Mail Aliases
Abbreviating and grouping mail addresses.
Mail Mode
Special commands for editing mail being composed.
Mail Amusements
Distract the NSA's attention; add a fortune to a msg.
Mail Methods
Using alternative mail-composition methods.
Reading Mail with Rmail

Rmail Basics
Basic concepts of Rmail, and simple use.
Rmail Scrolling
Scrolling through a message.
Rmail Motion
Moving to another message.
Rmail Deletion
Deleting and expunging messages.
Rmail Inbox
How mail gets into the Rmail file.
Rmail Files
Using multiple Rmail files.
Rmail Output
Copying message out to files.
Rmail Labels
Classifying messages by labeling them.
Rmail Attributes
Certain standard labels, called attributes.
Rmail Reply
Sending replies to messages you are viewing.
Rmail Summary
Summaries show brief info on many messages.
Rmail Sorting
Sorting messages in Rmail.
Rmail Display
How Rmail displays a message; customization.
Rmail Editing
Editing message text and headers in Rmail.
Rmail Digest
Extracting the messages from a digest message.
Out of Rmail
Converting an Rmail file to mailbox format.
Rmail Rot13
Reading messages encoded in the rot13 code.
More details of fetching new mail.
Dired, the Directory Editor

Dired Enter
How to invoke Dired.
Dired Navigation
How to move in the Dired buffer.
Dired Deletion
Deleting files with Dired.
Flagging Many Files
Flagging files based on their names.
Dired Visiting
Other file operations through Dired.
Marks vs Flags
Flagging for deletion vs marking.
Operating on Files
How to copy, rename, print, compress, etc.
either one file or several files.
Shell Commands in Dired
Running a shell command on the marked files.
Transforming File Names
Using patterns to rename multiple files.
Comparison in Dired
Running `diff' by way of Dired.
Subdirectories in Dired
Adding subdirectories to the Dired buffer.
Subdirectory Motion
Moving across subdirectories, and up and down.
Hiding Subdirectories
Making subdirectories visible or invisible.
Dired Updating
Discarding lines for files of no interest.
Dired and Find
Using `find' to choose the files for Dired.
The Calendar and the Diary

Calendar Motion
Moving through the calendar; selecting a date.
Scroll Calendar
Bringing earlier or later months onto the screen.
Counting Days
How many days are there between two dates?
General Calendar
Exiting or recomputing the calendar.
LaTeX Calendar
Print a calendar using LaTeX.
Displaying dates of holidays.
Displaying local times of sunrise and sunset.
Lunar Phases
Displaying phases of the moon.
Other Calendars
Converting dates to other calendar systems.
Displaying events from your diary.
Reminders when it's time to do something.
Daylight Savings
How to specify when daylight savings time is active.
Movement in the Calendar

Calendar Unit Motion
Moving by days, weeks, months, and years.
Move to Beginning or End
Moving to start/end of weeks, months, and years.
Specified Dates
Moving to the current date or another
specific date.
Conversion To and From Other Calendars

Calendar Systems
The calendars Emacs understands
(aside from Gregorian).
To Other Calendar
Converting the selected date to various calendars.
From Other Calendar
Moving to a date specified in another calendar.
Mayan Calendar
Moving to a date specified in a Mayan calendar.
The Diary

Diary Commands
Viewing diary entries and associated calendar dates.
Format of Diary File
Entering events in your diary.
Date Formats
Various ways you can specify dates.
Adding to Diary
Commands to create diary entries.
Special Diary Entries
Anniversaries, blocks of dates, cyclic entries, etc.

Buffers of Gnus
The group, summary, and article buffers.
Gnus Startup
What you should know about starting Gnus.
Summary of Gnus
A short description of the basic Gnus commands.
Running Shell Commands from Emacs

Single Shell
How to run one shell command and return.
Interactive Shell
Permanent shell taking input via Emacs.
Shell Mode
Special Emacs commands used with permanent shell.
Shell History
Repeating previous commands in a shell buffer.
Shell Options
Options for customizing Shell mode.
Remote Host
Connecting to another computer.

Minor Modes
Each minor mode is one feature you can turn on
independently of any others.
Many Emacs commands examine Emacs variables
to decide what to do; by setting variables, you can control their functioning.
Keyboard Macros
A keyboard macro records a sequence of
keystrokes to be replayed with a single command.
Key Bindings
The keymaps say what command each key runs.
By changing them, you can "redefine keys".
Keyboard Translations
If your keyboard passes an undesired code for a key, you can tell Emacs to substitute another code.
The syntax table controls how words and
expressions are parsed.
Init File
How to write common customizations in the
`.emacs' file.

Examining or setting one variable's value.
Easy Customization
Convenient and easy customization of variables.
Hook variables let you specify programs for parts
of Emacs to run on particular occasions.
Per-buffer values of variables.
File Variables
How files can specify variable values.
Keyboard Macros

Basic Kbd Macro
Defining and running keyboard macros.
Save Kbd Macro
Giving keyboard macros names; saving them in files.
Kbd Macro Query
Making keyboard macros do different things each time.
Customizing Key Bindings

Generalities. The global keymap.
Prefix Keymaps
Keymaps for prefix keys.
Local Keymaps
Major and minor modes have their own keymaps.
Minibuffer Maps
The minibuffer uses its own local keymaps.
How to redefine one key's meaning conveniently.
Init Rebinding
Rebinding keys with your init file, `.emacs'.
Function Keys
Rebinding terminal function keys.
Named ASCII Chars
Distinguishing <TAB> from C-i, and so on.
Mouse Buttons
Rebinding mouse buttons in Emacs.
Disabling a command means confirmation is required
before it can be executed. This is done to protect beginners from surprises.
The Init File, `~/.emacs'

Init Syntax
Syntax of constants in Emacs Lisp.
Init Examples
How to do some things with an init file.
Terminal Init
Each terminal type can have an init file.
Find Init
How Emacs finds the init file.
Dealing with Emacs Trouble

DEL Does Not Delete
What to do if <DEL> doesn't delete.
Stuck Recursive
`[...]' in mode line around the parentheses.
Screen Garbled
Garbage on the screen.
Text Garbled
Garbage in the text.
Unasked-for Search
Spontaneous entry to incremental search.
Memory Full
How to cope when you run out of memory.
Emergency Escape
Emergency escape---
What to do if Emacs stops responding.
Total Frustration
When you are at your wits' end.
Reporting Bugs

Bug Criteria. Have you really found a bug?
Understanding Bug Reporting
How to report a bug effectively.
Steps to follow for a good bug report.
Sending Patches
How to send a patch for GNU Emacs.
Command Line Options and Arguments

Action Arguments
Arguments to visit files, load libraries,
and call functions.
Initial Options
Arguments that take effect while starting Emacs.
Command Example
Examples of using command line arguments.
Resume Arguments
Specifying arguments when you resume a running Emacs.
Environment variables that Emacs uses.
Display X
Changing the default display and using remote login.
Font X
Choosing a font for text, under X.
Colors X
Choosing colors, under X.
Window Size X
Start-up window size, under X.
Borders X
Internal and external borders, under X.
Title X
Specifying the initial frame's title.
Icons X
Choosing what sort of icon to use, under X.
Resources X
Advanced use of classes and resources, under X.
Lucid Resources
X resources for Lucid menus.
LessTif Resources
X resources for LessTif and Motif menus.
Environment Variables

General Variables
Environment variables that all versions of Emacs use.
Misc Variables
Certain system specific variables.
MS-DOS and Windows 95/98/NT

MS-DOS Input
Keyboard and mouse usage on MS-DOS.
MS-DOS Display
Fonts, frames and display size on MS-DOS.
MS-DOS File Names
File-name conventions on MS-DOS.
Text and Binary
Text files on MS-DOS use CRLF to separate lines.
MS-DOS Printing
How to specify the printer on MS-DOS.
MS-DOS Processes
Running subprocesses on MS-DOS.
Windows Processes
Running subprocesses on Windows.
Windows System Menu
Controlling what the ALT key does.

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